In this paper
we review use of different types of X and Y chromosome marker for determining
sex in forensic investigation. This aim to provide an overview of how X and Y
marker are still being used in forensic laboratories. Advanced applications of
various DNA analysis methods are used for determining sex.
various types of markers for sex determination like Amelogenin, SRY (Sex
determination Region Y), TSPY(Y-encoded Testis Specific Protein), Locus
DXYS156, STS (Steroid Sulphatse). F-bodies are also used in sex determination.
F- bodies contain Y chromosome. It is used to identify sex from pulpal tissue.
The formation of amelogenin is involved in AMEL gene. In female AMEL Xgene is
located on 106bps and in male AMEL gene is located on 112 bps of DNA.SRY is the
sex determination region Ygene. These genes codes for the sex determining
region Protein which is responsible for further development as male. TSPY(Y-
encoded Testis specific Protein) located distal and proximal of AMELY. TSPY has
proposal of non allelic homologous recombination between TSPY respect as the
mechanism for some Y chromosome determination. STS (Steroid Sulphatse) is
located on the X chromosome. STS marker is different from other marker.DXYS156
marker is locate on both X and Y chromosome and used for sex determination.
is the male specific part of human used in forensic DNA analysis. By analyzing the
trace material present in the mixture of male and female by specific tool i.e.-STR
marker. Previously sex determination was performed by the investigation of leukocyte
nuclear drumstick, sex chromatin or fluorescence of the Y chromosome and thus
it is possible to perform sex determination through chromosome specific
Testing of X chromosome marker can be valuable in
particular situations, like, deficiency kinship cases. X- Chromosome Short
Tandem Repeats(X-STRs) are widely used in forensic genetics, while the use of X
chromosome single- nucleotide polymorphisms (X-SNPs) is still limited. The
analysis of Autosomal and Chromosome Y marker can complement by the chromosome
X genotyping and also especially in kinship testing. Over 40 X STR markers have
been characterized till date.
Introduction – Sex
determination is utmost important in the identification of missing person and
sexual assault or rape cases. Through molecular analysis investigator can
identify the sex of particular individual. Normally female has two X
chromosomes and male has one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. Y chromosome on
the whole is much successful method for identifying sex of an individual and
determining the ratio of male and female DNA in mixed forensic sample. For a
DNA profile to be got into US National DNA Index System(NDIS), which is
national level of the Combined DNA Index System(CODIS).