The responsibility concerned. 2. Co-ordination in the

The opposite of laicize fair is coordination. Co-ordination rather than coercion is the fundamental principle of administration, the Soviet did not learn this principle otherwise the Great Soviet Empire would have and disintegrated with balkanization of Lithuania, Latvia and Moldaviya (now Georgia), Kirghizia, Uzbekistan and others have followed suit.

Had Soviet learnt back principle of coordination based upon fellow felling rather than coercion, there would have been no death of Maxian State in U.S.S.R. coercion and military power is not the be all and end all of everything. It is consent, co-operation fellows felling and above all co-ordination that is the basic rule in Public Administration.

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Ms. Follett proposed four basic rules for purposes of achieving national or international planning:

1. Co-ordination by direct contact of the responsibility concerned.

2. Co-ordination in the early stages.

3. Co-ordination as the reciprocal relating of all the factors in a situation.

4. Co-ordination as a continuing process.

Responsibility for administrative management is always short although the business organization. We find some degree of authority all along the line, that leadership can be exercised by many people besides the top executive.

The crux of business organization is how to join these varied responsibilities, scattered authorities, these different kinds of leadership. Any business organization to be going strong must be unified and integrated.

A fair test of a business organization is whether you have a business with all its parts so co-ordinated, to moving together in their closely knit and adjusting activities, so linking, inter-locking, inter-relating, that they make a working unit, not a congeries of separate pieces.

An imperfectly worked out system “of Coordination, may result in inefficiency. Coordination depends on friendliness of all the heads of departments. It shows how two heads can work more closely, more together. Co-ordination is the problem of administration and management.

It is also a problem of organization and management. Some companies have a coordination department whose functions are to bring into closer relation the work of the ‘various departments. Some Companies have a planning department which serves as a co-ordinating agency.

The important question for an industrial organization is the achievement of “greater unity” i.e. how to employ the fundamental principle of unity in any organisation? Combination of going both across the line and up the line is important.

There is not only the descending and ascending leader of authority i.e. a horizontal type of authority does operate along with vertical type.

Direct contacts would eliminate the chances of misunderstanding as there is ample opportunity to explain problems and difficulties. Parallel heads are more useful than vertical heads; parallel heads are useful for the steady and continuous binding together of the different parts of an organization.

There are three ways of setting differences:

1. by domination,

2. By compromise, and

3. by integration.

Integration means finding a third way which will include both, what A wishes and what B wishes, a way in which neither side has had to sacrifice anything. Integration involves invention i.e. the finding of the third way. It means progress.

In domination, you stay where you are. In compromise you deal with no new values. By integration something new has emerged, the third way, something beyond the either-or. How to get integration? There is technique for integration.

A chief executive must know about it because in a situation where there is difference of opinion between executives, the chief acts as arbitrator and decides between the executives. A Chief Executive who does not act as emperor and decide between their executives is bound to fail. One must integrate A’s views with B’s. Difference can thus be resolved by integration.