I. represent one of the fastest growing demographics

         I.     Introduction


Across the world, there is an unmistakeable rise in the use
of motorised transportation. Accessibility to vehicles is much easier and the
demographics using motorised transportation are growing. This increased use of
vehicles leads to congested roads and increased chances for motoring
collisions. For instance, the elderly population represent one of the fastest
growing demographics due to people generally living longer, however they also
represent the demographic most likely to be involved in a traffic incident due
to their reduced cognitive abilities. With 90% of accidents being attributed to
human error 3 it is clear that a change is required. Demand for autonomous
and intelligent vehicles is also fuelled by increased government pressures to increase
road safety. The Automated and Electric Vehicles bill that was proposed in 2017,
is designed to provide legislative guidance to stakeholders 4. 

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Research and development into autonomous and intelligent
vehicles has been driven by a number of initiatives since the 1980s such as
DARPA grand challenges and the Prometheus project 5.  In more recent years, further developments in
AV technology have been under the influence of private companies. One
particular example is Google’s Driverless Car project called Waymo 6. They
have developed and demonstrated a fleet of vehicles which together have amassed
almost 1,500,000 miles of fully autonomous driving 7. Other manufacturers,
especially in the premium segment, view research into intelligent vehicles as
an important activity 8. To that extent, a number of manufactures have
announced plans for fully automated vehicles and already offer vehicles with
advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs) such as collision prevention, lane
tracking and self-parking 9.


The classification of intelligent vehicles was first
proposed by the NHTSA who created an initial hierarchy of autonomy 10. These
levels included, No Automation, Function-specific Automation, Combined Function
automation, Limited Self-driving Automation and Full Self-driving automation
11.  However, the ability to
distinguish between the levels became more complex and so in 2016 a new
classification by the Society of Automotive Engineers was adopted. The first 3
levels go from no automation where the driver is solely responsible for all
driving tasks, up to occasional assisted driving depending upon the driving
environment. For these levels, the automated systems are intended to act as a
safety net and to unburden the driver during part of the trip. Levels 3-5
include vehicles at different levels of fully autonomous driving, where the
human is just a passenger while the system is active. The difference in levels
here comes from the operating domain of the automated driving system. A level 3
vehicle may be restricted to only operating in a strict environment whereas, a
level 5 vehicle has a completely unrestricted operating domain where no human
interaction is expected.


The vehicles that attempt to co-operate with the driver
rather than replace have been referred to as cognitive vehicles (levels 0-2).

This paper aims to the address both the assisted and fully automated (levels
3-5) approaches by reviewing current research and assessing the impact of each.