Hoover-Dempsey outcomes (e.g., achievement, accomplishment, and self- adequacy)

Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler
(Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler, 1997) insisted that parents’ beliefs about
parental roles and responsibilities contribute to their level of involvement
with children’s education. They extensively characterized parental involvement
as ranging from home-based activities to school-based activities, which
cultivate children’s learning and school results. Home-based activities
included reviewing and observing children’s work and process, examining school
events and courses with children, assisting with homework, providing activities
applicable to school achievement, and communicating with teachers. School-based
activities were exercises as driving on a field trip, coming to school for
conferences, meetings or casual conversation, volunteering, and serving on a
parent-teacher advisory board.

Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (1997)
developed an exhaustive theoretical framework for parental involvement, which
concentrated on three primary issues: (a) why parents become involved, (b) how
parents pick their type of involvement, and (c) why parental involvement
positively affects students. Bloom (1980) characterized the meaning of parental
involvement in practice, as different parental behaviors and parenting
practices. Cases of parental involvement include: parental aspirations for
their children’s academic accomplishment and their movement of such goals to
their children, parents’ communication with children about school, parents’
investment in school activities, parents’ correspondence with teachers about
their children, and parental rules imposed at home that are thought to be
education-related. (Fan & Chen, 2001, p. 3)

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Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler’s model
summarized the factors affect parental involvement at five levels:

(1) The decision to become
involved (e.g., school invitations, parent role development)

(2) The choice of type of
involvement (e.g., parents’ skills, information, and accessible time)

(3) How involvement impacts school
outcomes (e.g., modeling, reinforcement, and guideline)

(4) Tempering or mediating
variables (e.g., fit between parents’ involvement activities and school

(5) Student outcomes (e.g.,
achievement, accomplishment, and self- adequacy)

Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (1995,
1997) comprehensive model from the point of view of parents about the parent
involvement process grounded in psychological and educational research has been
exactly tested by researchers (e.g., Reed, Jones, Walker, & Hoover-
Dempsey, 2000). Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (1995, 1997) proposed that parents
regularly become involved in their children’s education for three reasons: (1)
they develop build up a parental role construction about their participation in
their children’s education; (2) they build up a positive parental adequacy for
helping their children prevail in school; and (3) they perceive opportunities
or demands for involvement from children and school.

How parental involvement impacts
school outcomes, to be specific the third level in Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler’s
(1997) model, was the main focus of McNeal (1999). McNeal (1999) contended that
the involvement of parents in their child’s education influences student
results through three mechanisms. The primary mechanism, socializing, refers to
home-based involvement, such as directing homework, by which parents underline
the importance of schooling. Producing social control through school-based
involvement is the second component; school-based involvement offers parents
the chance to create relationships with teachers and other parents, and in
discussing their child’s behavior, to learn from them. The last mechanism is
approaching insider data by communicating with the school. By this component,
parents will be, for instance, prior and better informed about the accessible
solutions in occurrences of learning or behavioral issues. McNeal’s theory
indicates diverse results for the three mechanisms: socialization and social
control influence the attitude, motivation and conduct of the student, while
approaching to insider information directly affects both cognitive and
behavioral student outcomes (McNeal 1999).

Hoover-Dempsey et al. (2001)
portrayed three reasons why assisting with homework may have these constructive
outcomes: (1) modeling, (2) reinforcement, and (3) instruction. First, parents
can serve as remarkable models while helping their child with homework. This is
based on the possibility that children learn through observation. Parents are
influential good examples since they possess skills and abilities that children
value profoundly. Because there are no immediate results of the child’s
performance at home (as opposed to school), home provides a protected situation
where the parent turns into a significantly more powerful role model. The
second reason is reinforcement; by giving positive consequences because of the
child’s homework practices, the child is empowered to exhibit similar skills
and behaviors again. Parents may even have preference over teachers because
they have better understanding into which reinforcement strategies are the best
for their child. Finally, assisting with homework may have a positive effect on
student achievement because parents tend to utilize the learning strategy
“guided or collaborative learning” (Hoover-Dempsey et al. 2001). This
incorporates directing the child to the task at hand, simplifying the task,
giving additional clarification, or relating the task to recognizable contexts.

Walker et al. (2005) changed the
Hoover-Dempsey scale model into five categories. The first three categories
inspect the psychological indicators such as parents’ motivational convictions,
parent perceptions of invitations, and perceived life settings. The fourth
category analyzes the parents’ involvement frames characterized as school-based
behaviors and home-based behaviors. Finally, the researchers investigated the
reciprocal relationship between the theory and measurement develops. This sort
of scale model provided the opportunity to quantify parent involvement along a
wide range of psychological dimensions. For example utilizing this
multidimensional framework, Green, Walker, Hoover-Dempsey, and Sandler (2007)
found that parents’ relationship to teachers and children is a strong
motivating variable for parent involvement. Furthermore, intrapersonal and
interpersonal psychological factors such as perception of invitation to
involvement from teachers, motivational beliefs, and perceived life contexts were
observed to be strong indicators of home and school-based involvement as well
as self-efficacy and time and energy for involvement. Research findings
proposed that understanding the psychological underpinnings of parent
involvement is basic in outlining and executing projects, strategies, and

Hoover-Dempsey et al (2005) declared over the
discoveries and recommendations, there are themes of strengthening for all
participants in children’s schooling and all concerned with respecting and
upgrading parents’ commitments to children’s school achievement. With specific
reference to our emphasis here on parents, there are thus strong suggestions
that school attention to parents’ personal motivations for involvement, and
family life-context variables persistent to involvement can support personal
motivation and positive effect on student outcomes