Godly between the radical Protestantism of the Baptists

 

Godly Commonwealths and The Puritans and the Dilemmas of
Conversion

1.    What are the three patterns of settlements that Rakove
identify?

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Presbyterian: These churches
derive their name from a form of church government called Presbyterian and
governed by a group of representative assemblies of elders.

Congregationalist: In 16th
and 17th Century a Christian movement that arose in England, which
occupied the theological position which is somewhere between the radical
Protestantism of the Baptists and Quakers and Presbyterianism.

Episcopalians:  It was a synonym for Anglican in the United
States, Scotland, and other places. These churches were organized when it
became separate from the Church of England after the American Revolution.

2.    What was the Puritan critique of Catholic Church?

There
were lot of differences between the Puritan and a catholic church. The Puritans
were against the powerful Catholic hierarchy that was ruled by the pope and the
bishops. They believed that only one person is the head of the church and that
is Jesus Christ.

They also believed in reciting
the prayers rather than the standardized Missal during a ritualized service.
They sang psalms and rejected making the sign of sign of cross and kneeling
during the service.

They also emphasized on severe
punishment and public acknowledgement of sins whereas the Catholics believed in
forgiveness and private confession of sin. The churches of the Puritans were
humble and simple and believed only in two sacraments baptism and the
celebration of the Lord’s Supper.

 They lived a more rigid lifestyle than the
Catholics and believed pleasure to be a sin. They believed only in labor and
worship of God and thought that pastors should be a married man as opposed to
the Catholic practice of celibacy.

3.    What sacraments did the Puritans preserve?

Puritans
sacraments that were preserved were many. They believed and valued the
Christian rites. They believed in Sabbath, Baptism, Lord’s last supper,
Christmas and Salvation. They also believed that God chose who should receive
His grace or not. 

4.    Explain the doctrine of predestination? Why, according to
Rakove, is predestination a product of the challenge to the Catholic Church?
What catholic practices does predestination reject?

The
doctrine of Predestination is in Calvinism that deals with the question of
control that God exercises all over the world. It also refers to the belief
that God has appointed the eternal destiny of salvation by grace to some and
the rest to receive an eternal damnation for their sins.

It challenges the Catholic
Church by believing that God predestined whom he wanted to predestine, without
considering the merits of the predestined people whereas, the Catholics teach
that predestination is conditioned upon the merits of predestined. The Catholic
Church teaches that the church’s tradition is equally authoritative as the
Bible whereas, the doctrine of predestination of church reserves supreme
authority to the Bible alone and reject the church.

5.    What did a Puritan have to demonstrate in his or her life to
demonstrate that he or she was a viable saint?

It was
a movement started by the Puritans in the 16th century that they
believed to purify the Church of England, or Anglican Church. It was by
eradicating the perceived remnants of Catholicism. A Puritan has to demonstrate
that their daily lives were a part of God’s chosen or it predestined to receive
salvation. The man has to be from a wholesome living and financial success to
be God’s elect, to be visible saint otherwise referred to as sainthood.

6.    What did the Synod of 1662 do and why?

The
Synod of 1662 was a form of partial church membership that was created within
the Congregational churches of colonial New England. It was promoted by the
Reverend Solomon Stoddard. The Reverend felt that the people of the colonies
were drifting away from their original religious purpose and were becoming more
materialistic.