FREQUENCY OF MALOCCLUSION REPORTING TO ORTHODONTIC
DEPARTMENT OF FOUNDATION UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY (FUCD): A HOSPITAL
Amina Malik ¹*, Ali Ayub2*, Afeef Umar Zia3*
¹* Lecturer, Department
of Oral Biology, Foundation University College of Dentistry
2* 3* Department of
Orthodontics, Foundation University College of Dentistry
Address: Department of Oral Biology,
Foundation University College of Dentistry,
DHA Phase 1, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Email: [email protected]
aimed to establish the frequency?of?malocclusions?among?patients?attending
orthodontics department in a new teaching hospital
Design: Retrospective study
conducted in FUCD
Place and duration of
January 2014 to December 2016. Orthodontics department of Foundation University
College of Dentistry
We analyzed the records of 170 patients who came for orthodontic treatment from
January 2014 to December 2016. Microsoft Excel was used to calculate the frequency/percentages
of different types of malocclusion prevalent in these patients.
Results: The frequency of
Skeletal class I, II and III malocclusion was found to be 31.0%, 68.0% and 1.0%
Conclusion: The present study can
guide us for?planning better orthodontic?service and help educating and
training students in the management of all types of malocclusion, especially skeletal
class II malocclusion, to improve the overall quality of care for patients.
Key words: Malocclusion, Skeletal Class II,
Malocclusion is variation from ideal
occlusion which may be considered aesthetically unpleasing but it is not
unhealthy. 1,2 The etiology is multifactorial and both genetic and
environmental factors play a role. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past
to determine frequency of various malocclusions in different populations. 3-13A qualitative analysis with Angle’s classification
was used to describe anteroposterior
relationship of maxillary and mandibular first molars.14 It describes
antero-posterior relationship of the maxillary and mandibular first molars
during maximum intercuspation. Cephalometric indicators are used to analyze the
maxillary and mandibular skeletal positions.
Angular and linear measurements have been proposed in the assessment of
anteroposterior jaw-base relationship.
A retrospective study was conducted on 170
patients. To obtain the information, records of 170 patients were analyzed and
tabulated from January 2014 to December 2016. Patient’s records included dental
and medical history, Lateral Cephalogram, Orthopentomogram (OPG), pictures and dental
cast. Cephalometric analysis was done to determine the type of malocclusion. Microsoft Excel was used to compile the
results of types of malocclusion.
The inclusion criteria used to select the
having orthodontic casts taken in centric occlusion
having Lateral Cephalometric radiographs taken in natural head posture.
of first permanent molar.
with no significant past medical history
with no history of trauma
with no previous orthodontic treatment
Cephalometric landmarks were marked on each cephalogram. The points were identified
using definitions given in literature and skeletal?relations of jaws were established
by tracing Lateral Cephalometric X-rays.15 Skeletal?malocclusion was
determined?by?measuring the following angular and linear measurements
SNA: 80-84 degrees: Orthognathic Maxilla
<80 degrees: Retrognathic Maxilla · >84
degrees: Prognathic Maxilla
SNB: 78-82 degrees: Orthognathic mandible
< 78 degrees: Retrognathic mandible · >
82 degrees: Prognathic mandible
ANB : 0–4°: Skeletal class I
Skeletal class II
<0°: Skeletal class III Figure-1 Horizontal cephalometric variables (SNA, SNB, ANB, NAPg) The?data?was gathered and analyzed using Microsoft Excel and the frequency/percentages of different types of malocclusion prevalent in these patients were calculated. RESULTS: Total 170 patients reported from January 2014 to December 2016; 45 class I, 98 class II and 27 class III. The data analysis showed an increase in the number of patients from 2014 to 2016 (Figure 2). The highest percentage of malocclusion which reported was for class II (Figure 3) Figure 2: percentage of malocclusion Figure 3: types of malocclusion DISCUSSION According to our results, Class II malocclusion was most prevalent category of malocclusion. These results are in accordance with previous studies conducted in Pakistan 16,17,18..Our results differed from some international publications. Our?data was not?in?agreement?with?Sari?et?al.,?who reported?that?61.7%?of?the patients?in Turkey?had?class?I,?28.1%?had?class?II and?10.2%?had?class?III?Angle?dental malocclusion 19. Our?results?were also in disagreement to those?of?Jones et al,?who?investigated?dental?malocclusion?in?132?Saudi?Arabian patients?referred?for?orthodontic?treatment?and?reported?that?53.8%?had?class I,?33.3%?class?II?and?12.9%?had?class?III Angle?dental?malocclusions?20. Another study carried out in Iranian population was also not in accordance with our study; the?prevalence?of?class?I,?II?and?III?malocclusion was?52.0%,?32.6%?and 12.3%?respectively.21 This study was conducted in Fauji Foundation Hospital Rawalpindi (Tertiary Care Facility) on the patients reporting to Orthodontic department from different multi ethnic backgrounds. The study indicates the current status of malocclusion in this region but this might not be the trend in the entire Pakistani population. The local community being catered for by this hospital will need to undergo orthodontic management of class II malocclusions according to the findings of this research to improve function and esthetics as well. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that skeletal Class II malocclusion was most frequently seen, whereas class III was the least frequent. This study might not certainly show the trend of the entire Pakistani population, however it provides a base line data for planning orthodontic treatments. Therefore orthodontics students?should?receive?more?education and?training?in?the?management?of?class II?malocclusion?to?improve?the?overall quality?of?care?for?patients. REFERENCES: 1. Proffit WR and Fields HW. Contemporary Orthodontics. 2nd ed. Chicago: Mosby Year Book;2000:1-15. 2. A Textbook of Orthodontics Houston WJB, Stephens CD and Tulley WJ., Great Britain: Wright; 1992:1-13 3. Prevalence of malocclusion in seventh grade children in two North Carolina cities.Erickson DM, Graziano FW. 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