Freda be limited to managing the women in


Freda Adler’s Liberation
Theory (1975) theorizes that the feminist
movement, in their radical desire for increased self-determination directly
affect the increase of women’s criminal activity. Here it is again, the
distortion of social criterion of gender-specific roles provide disturbing
relegation of inadmissible behaviour, not only affecting the person but also
creates repellant disposition of actions against others, just primarily to
prove some skewed ideology of departing from a naturally delineated and
gender-specific orientations. Come years 1990 to 2000, (Bloom, Owen and
Covington 2003) there was a recorded increase of 81% of women were criminally
institutionalized in the United States, this is despite the overall decline of
crime rates.  It is not implied however
that the feminist movement point only to continuous accretion of criminality
among women, as the movement have successfully gained transformative impact in
taking possession opportunities and privileges only the male gender previously dominates.  It is therefore important that feminist
criminology will not be limited to managing the women in correctional
facilities with a limited definition of punishment, psychological control and
assertion of correctional policies as a means to rehabilitate, but also to see
the women’s standpoint, the cultural, gendered and classist underpinnings of
their lives (Pollack 2004).  The
correctional system can create sophisticated designs intended for reformation
towards predetermined and expected outcome but it would be more substantial if
a social program is defined so that women with predispositions to committing
criminal acts are prevented and helped. 
There is no logical argument that can go against the principle of
prevention and leaving out the women out of prison walls.

While Freda Adler and Rita Simon notes that “Women are
discriminated against on the basis of their sex; denied access to same
political, financial, career, and personal opportunities as men” Pollack’s
statement complements this societal gendered differentiation where women who
commit fraud and prostitution define their transgressions of governmental
statute as a learned and modelled culture to escape poverty. With fewer
opportunities that men have in maintaining a sustainable resource for basic
needs in socially acceptable mechanisms, these women would rather resort to
lawlessness, rather than submit to a consequence that imply dependence to men
and thus represent a lesser ability to survive the rigors of living. Balfour
further postulates that feminist criminology should consider “repositioning
women’s narrative” driven by conceptual modalities of gender equality
proponents, therefore retreating progressions of pre-defined social roles of
men and women, departing from natural prepositions intrinsically defined by
biological and psychological distinction between men and women. These
differentiations have to be seen through an objective perspective and should
not in any way be viewed with a perverted derogation or dominance of a gender.

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have supported the feminist position in a sense that women’s victimization is
fundamentally different than men. Rape, intimate/ sexual violence has heavily impacted
the mainstream of criminology. It is proven that women are more likely to be
victimized by someone close to them in contrast to males being attacked by
someone completely random. The research within feminist criminology has reshaped
society’s perspective of violence between partners and violence within the home.

all the public criticisms and disputes regarding women taking matters into
their own accounts; are the issues that arise from a racial standpoint. Shoshana
Pollack, has made a clear point in moving beyond the victimization of women’s’
lives to actually understanding the conditions of what women have to live
through. Pollack has taken it upon herself to act as a conduit, to voice black
women who have been deemed “out of control” or are treatment prone. But the
argument of women’s questionable role in society is deeply rooted within the publics
core. Another example of rebellious deeds and pride is sourced from a quoted
woman’s standpoint; claiming that culture, gender and race is of great
importance and should not be taken for granted. “There are certain things I won’t
do, because that’s not me. I’d rather go out and steal a turkey, before I’d ask
a man to buy me a turkey” (Quoted in Pollack 2000). Another major factor that
arises from a feminist criminology was it being a new type of criminology study.
The Marxist theory and the outstanding conflicts from intellectual roots, views
crime as oppression when it ties in with gender, race and class oppression. At
this point in time, political unrest and the swift change of social norms had heavily
impacted society’s view on the women’s liberation movement. The existing ideologies
were greatly challenged, alongside anti-war and civil rights movements.

power is one of many key components to a feminist criminology. One must first understand
the relationship between gender roles and its functionality in society. Pride
and prejudice transcends humiliation and has been a reoccurring theme in
criminological research. (Albert Cohen, 1955). A clear example of prideful acts
over a range of feminist viewpoints are from what Margaret Shaw illustrates.
She claims that, the issue is not about women hating men, or recognizing
themselves as victims; but more so the fact that women need to be heard alongside
their consciousness. It is easily apparent that males have committed more
offences and has been deemed more importance in criminology. This readjustment
of focus has been under the spotlight only until the 70’s. The field that was
built in part to aid the improvement of analyzing of why people commit criminal
deeds is so that policies are implemented to reduce criminal actions. Women
have been ignored for decades due to the lack of public interest. Furthermore,
criminology has continued to developed into an accepted viewpoint in
criminology. But however, feminist criminology has a tendency to mislead people
in regards to its theoretical perspectives and methodologies that sculpts the
experience of gender roles and its vast range of issues related to women and

subject area of women’s history has increasingly gained acceptance and have
grown closer to the center of historical profession. Gender has been integrated
into some general history texts, courses and far more departments. Furthermore,
early 1970s Canada saw a crisis of production that paved the way to a
neo-liberal economic model (Ratner and McMullan, 1983). Neo-liberal economics
were concomitantly legitimated by a neo-conservative political ideology that
solidified a reactionary criminal justice system. It was also argued that
street crime was brought on by “permissive people victimizing decent citizens”.
Women in criminology struggled with watching activism for decades. Within this
time frame, the feminist project re-shifted towards politics of identity. In
addition, North American feminism has also decoupled culture from the political
economy just as neo-liberalism uprising.