For about the story during and after helps

For this assignment, I have chosen storytelling, music and cooking as
suitable resource to use in early childhood setting. I have chosen these three
as I believe that they have been used for many generations and will still be
used for many more to come.


Story Telling

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Storytelling is a loved activity for
many young children, there is a wide range of appropriate books to use, and it
is a great time for children to wind down. Promoting language development in
the early years is critically important. Small-group storytelling activities
create strong foundations by engaging children in simple yet powerful uses of
language (Erin Elizabeth Flynn). 


When teachers share the literature,
children increase their oral vocabulary and transfer it to reading print and
writing their own work. They develop a better understanding of how print works.
They begin to play with language and build phonemic awareness that helps make
reading, spelling and writing readily accessible. Teachers can help children
develop plans for each of the four key literacy skills—vocabulary, print
concepts, phonemic awareness, and fluency—and can reinforce their teaching plans
in an inviting and comprehensive manner. Storytelling promotes young children
to love literacy, and the use of books is a foundation for Intentional teaching
activities (Dollins, 2014).

can “scaffold” learning in many different approaches, they may ask questions,
for example “children need to remember character names and places”. Asking
inquisitive questions about the story during and after helps develop creative
thinking and imagination. Children will engage in a fun educational journey.
When children listen to storytellers, they have the chance to hear new words and
sounds. As Fields and Spangler
(2002) suggest, being read to regularly is the best way for children to become
familiar with the conventions of written language. Children can travel the world and learn new cultures and
languages through storytelling.

Storytelling is
an intentional planned activity that can be directed by children’s curiosity. It is also
an indirect way of shedding light on meaningful messages that demonstrate values and qualities
such as honesty and friendship. It also helps identify feelings such as happiness,
being hurt or sadness. When adults model the sounds of written
language, introduce and reinforce vocabulary in context, and show the structure
and punctuation of texts, children build their own listening, speaking,
reading, and writing abilities (Morrison & Wlodarczyk, 2009).

I would introduce the book to children during mat time
I will read the book slowly and since it has a beautiful poetic rhythm children
can pick up on repetitive and rhyming words. After reading
through the story a couple of times I
will ask children to remember what funny and interesting things they discovered
in the story., I would ask each of the children to tell me all the
rhyming words they can remember, for example cat/fat or bike/like. There are so
many ways children can learn from storytelling; an example is to set up an
intentional activity such as drawing and let the children draw what they saw in
the book, and what other characters could be introduced, etc.

The learning outcome is thinking, using language, relating to others,
listening, and creativity. All the outcomes are linked to Te Whariki
Strand 4 “Communication”; with guidance and encouragement children gradually become
proficient in using gestures to express themselves, understand language and enjoy
storytelling. Children can make up some stories of their own and recognise
print symbols and mathematical concepts (Te Whariki 2017).


Music supports learning across all strands of Te Wh?riki.
Children discover and develop different ways to be creative and expressive towards
their own feelings and culture. It allows children to discover themselves and
their abilities. Music helps
children learn sounds and meanings of words. It supports the building of children’s
motor skills through dancing and it also helps strengthens memory; it is an activity that has
no end.

According to Bowman (2002), children transform
their ways of knowing and their music learning identities through music
improvisation. He advocates music involvement in early learning setting as it expands
opportunities for more creative tasks, it also creates links to home and community.
In particular, music learning has been confirmed as helping children to
concentrate for longer times, because it enhances their memories for learning
and improves self-expression skills. Learning is a complex process, and
learning music prompts young children’s cognitive understanding and stimulates
their creative thinking skills, which builds another relationship with intelligence
in early childhood (Yue, 2012).

Ongoing studies of culturally
diverse children which capture their enactment of higher thinking through modal
redesign, are necessary to understand co-constructed learning processes and how
these are inextricably linked to creative music activity (Tomlinson, 2012). Early childhood teachers can use music to
help children find a sense of belonging and connect them to their heritage. For
example: using Te Reo songs can help native New Zealanders feel at home while
encouraging other children to participate and learn new words or dance. Waiata can be used as an education tool for teaching
and learning and, as such, is driven by the practice of whanaungatanga.
Children’s waiata contain easily memorised models for expanding competency and
correct articulation of te reo Ma?ori. Through listening to the waiata tamariki,
adults (and children) can absorb words and sentence structures (Rotu 2013).

Within early childhood learning programmes,
there is a need to plan for creative music invention tasks that support
children by validating their experiences and competencies, their cultural
dispositions, and identities (Barrett, 2009).  

Education without
music is incomplete and indefensible. Indeed, music has been consistently
included in many countries’ preschool curriculum as a fundamental art form for
young children. According to Snyder (1997), the learning outcome for this
recourse is that children learn new words, express emotions, increase motor skills,
listening and memory skills. These are linked to all the strands of Te Whariki.
discover and develop different ways to be creative and expressive. Using
music to learn te reo and New Zealand’s rich culture is great way to allow
children to gain and develop a sense of belonging. incooperating songs to learn
Te reo and culture tradition is 
connected to Strand 2 of the curriculum :children know they belong and
have a sense of connection to others and the environment “.(Te Whariki 2017)


Cooking is a messy, fun and engaging activity;
it is important as it helps children’s social development. It builds confidence
in children’s practical skills and abilities. Following a recipe can encourage
self-direction and independence. It also inspires children’s curiosity and
guides them towards problem solving. By offering new opportunities to make
predictions, observations, measuring, and counting, cooking is an indirect way
of teaching mathematics and science in a very “real-world” context. Following
recipe charts and measuring ingredients are math activities, and as they stir, beat,
and bake, children are engaging in chemistry (Sprung, 2006).

Through cooking activities, children learn
to organise ingredients, follow a sequence, and carry out directions. Planned
cooking activities are great way to introduce children to healthy eating habits
and the food pyramid.

Example: If we were making toasted cheese
sandwiches I would ask children to cut the toast into triangles and cut the
cheese into whatever shape they like. I would ask specific questions, for
example: Why did the cheese melt? What will happen if we put the melted cheese
back in the fridge? And then I would ask the children why they think some
cheese melted outside the toast while other cheese did not.

The learning outcomes for this
resource are: identifying shapes, measuring, cutting, scientific exploration and
problem solving. It is linked to Te Whariki strand
four “Communication” and “Exploration” as children become verbal and communicate,
negotiate, predict, plan and explore themselves and the
environment . Providing children with an environment where curiosity is encouraged,
questions can be answered and mistakes can be made is vital in children’s development.
Providing resources and activities in real life context makes learning fun and
grants children a head start in life.


According to Hal (1987), young
children pay attention to the literacy-based elements in their environment is
extremely clear and consistent. Early childhood settings should provide a
supportive environment for learning where children can build a positive
attitude toward themselves, language, and literacy. I do believe a literacy-rich
environment needs a scaffolding team to support children throughout their
years. Smith (1999, p. 86) emphasises that higher mental processes in children are
formed through the scaffolding of children’s developing understanding through
social interactions with skilled partners. For children to acquire knowledge
about their world, it is crucial that they engage in shared experiences with
relevant scripts, events and objects with adults. Creating an educational
resourceful environment through intentional teaching activities and monitored
free play is imperative towards proving the best start for children.


Learning thought inquiry engages a child’s
curiosity as stated by (Krough); young children are naturally curious and providing
opportunities for them to inquire and explore will engage and increase their
interests. When children are provided with meaningful opportunities to use
their curiosity and to pose questions in order to gain in-depth knowledge of a
topic; it is termed as investigative learning, inquiry-based learning, or
simply inquiry learning.

As Intentional teaching is referred to
as a strategic thinking process that has learning as a goal instead of an
incidental outcome, it involves three aspects: the decision to engage, commit,
and persist (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1989, p. 363).