Faith is what lies in the deepest heart of a person and lies beyond the realm of minds. The fundamental pillar of faith in Islam is the absolute oneness of God. Any concepts of polytheism which carry the means of believing in multiplicity of God indicate the revocation of faith. Tawheed is an Arabic word which implies unity or unification (making something one) or “asserting oneness”. The meaning of tawheed according to Muhammad ibn Saalih Ibn al-‘Uthaymeen, is the noun derived from the Arabic root verb: ????????? / ??????? (wahhada / yuwahhidu) which means to make something one. The concept of Tawheed would not be fulfilled by men unless they testify that nothing deserves any form of worship except Allah. By this, we nullify any right of worship to anyone or anything other than Allah, and we affirm it to Allah alone. This is because negation is equal to an absolute and complete negation, affirmation alone does not restrict others from sharing in the characteristic.
It is compulsory to profess the belief in oneness of God by reciting Al-Kalimah “LA ILAHA ILLALLAH” to claim “There is no deity but Allah”, a person is considered a part of muslim community once proclaimed such oath. Thus, it becomes obligatory for a servant of Allah to carry out his duties and devote himself to nothing but Allah. Islam is a very comprehensive religion suitable for everyone regardless his race, colour, nationality or political loyalty. Allah is the universal God and He perceives all individual as equal under His laws
The concept and theory of monotheism or tawhed is distinctive from other religion. Christians have the trinity concept and they believe in one God in three persons: the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, and all three manifest the same reality. The whole concept of trinity is contradictory to unity from what it claimed to be but they still insist on the unity of God. The Christian word of creed: “I believe in God and His only son Jesus who was put on the cross by such and such King. Then he went to Hell where he stayed there for three days. He then went to Heaven where he sat on the right hand of God. He will reappear at the end of time on earth for the accountability of the dead and the alive and that He shall die in flesh and shall attain life eternal”. The whole idea is absurd and questionable, how could Jesus sit on the God’s right hand when he himself is the manifestation of God? Hence, the conviction of Christianity are vulnerable to flaw and self-contradictory, confusing to the extent of it become unacceptable.
Coherently, Zoroaster belief depicts the contrary between the unity of God and their discussion on duality. Their conviction is that God can do no wrong, cannot be attributed to evil and He does not create evil. Therefore, it conveys the message that God is good is different to God of evil, excluding all the possibilities of associating God with any evil. However, in this world, the good is defeated and evil walks with triumph and this ignite a spark in their discussion of life: Is God someone who is weak and defeated? (Khan, 2011) Islam on the other hand, has lay down the concept of unity in the most simple and straightforward manner, that is not parallel in other religions. There is never a God existed and to be worth worshipped other than Allah. The other creatures only serve as His servant and it is an obligation to devote themselves to Him and only Him. This has always be the explanation regarding the creed of Islam. In a book titled Tawheed: It’s meaning and categories, Muhammad Ibn Saalih Al-Uthaymeen explained the concept of tawheed through an analogy: “if you said, “No one is standing except Zayd,” then you have singled out Zayd alone with the action of standing, negating it from anyone other than him. This is the true description of Tawheed in reality, meaning that Tawheed is not fulfilled unless it contains both negation and affirmation”. The application of Islamic faith does not rely solely on metaphysical and philosophical connotations, but are rather built on five fundamental pillars which infuse the spiritual values within the physical ritual.
TAWHED as WORLDVIEW
Mutahhari (2013) define worldview as “world knowledge or cosmology; it relates to the well-known question of knowledge, which is an exclusively human property, as opposed to feeling, which man shares with other animals. Therefore, world knowledge is exclusive to man and is a function of his reflection and intellection”. Tawhed provide general view of reality regarding the truth, world, space and time, human history and destiny.
The muslim scholars carry a huge responsibility to articulate the significance and idea of tawhidic worldview in the contemporary socio-political context due to the era of secularism and globalisation. There are many great muslim reformers and intellectuals; Muhammad Hamidulla, Mohammad Natsir, Syed Qutb, Abu’l A’la Mawdudi and Muhammad al-Mubarak, who express and derive the meaning and implications of Tawhed worldview to defend the Islamic creed in response to the ideological challenge faced by muslim communities back in the first half of 20th century which are Capitalism and Communism. Nowadays, Quranic and Islamic Worldviews are being challenged by numerous ideologies and worldviews, both religious and non-religious. Thus it has become crucial for muslim authorities to be able to address the current issues in accordance to the worldview of Tawhed
· Al-Faruqi’s Exposition of Tawhed
The principles established to understand the essence of Tawhed: Duality, ideationality, teleology, capacity of man & malleability of nature and responsibility and judgement.
Duality means the reality of creation but subservient and devoted to Him. The reality is divided into two kinds, God and non-God (other than God). Allah is the only member and representative of the first kind and He will always remain as God the Omnipotent, the Eternal and the Creator. He will not by any means be associated by anything. The second kind includes all creations: angels, prophets, mankind, animal, plants, heaven and earth. The two categories can never be associated and must be absolutely separated. It is impossible for the element of creations to be co-fused or united and neither can the Creator be transformed and transcended Himself to become the creations and vice versa. “The two orders of Creator and creature are utterly and absolutely disparate as far as their being, or ontology, as well as their experience and careers, are concerned. It is forever impossible that the one be united with, infused, confused with or diffused in the other. Neither can the Creator be ontologically transformed so as to be the creature, nor can the creature transcend and transfigure itself so as to become, in any way or sense, the Creator.” (Faruqi, 10)
Explains how humans’ knowledge and submissiveness to God are closely related. The faculty of thought endowed by Allah is the greatest gift to mankind, in order to help to understand the Will of God by two ways which are expressed in words directly by God to man or “the laws of nature,” the divine will is deducible through observation of creation.
The world is created by God in a systematic manner and not just a happenstance or coincidence. The very nature of cosmos is teleological; that serves a purpose of its creator, and doing so out of design. Everything existed for reasons and to fulfil certain universal purpose. In it, the will of the Creator is always realized. His pattern is fulfilled with the necessity of natural law. For they are innate in the way other than what the Creator has ordained for it. This is true of all creatures – except man. Human action is the only instance where the will of God is actualized not necessarily, but deliberately, freely, voluntarily. The physical ability of man is indispensable to nature, and all things considered they comply with the laws applicable to them with an indistinguishable need from every single other creature. However, the spiritual capacities, the understanding and moral activity, fall outside the domain of decided nature. They rely regarding their matter and follow his assurance. The realization of the divine will by them is of a subjectively different incentive in comparison to vital actualization by different creatures. Important satisfaction applies just to essential or utilitarian esteems. Be that as it may, the moral purpose of God, His rules to man, do have a base in the physical world, and henceforth there is a utilitarian angle to them. Be that as it may, this isn’t what gives them their particular quality, to be specific, that of being moral. It is decisively their part of being to be fulfilled in opportunity, that is, the likelihood of being satisfied or disregarded outstanding constantly open, that gives them the exceptional pride we attribute to things “moral”. (Hassan, 2015).
4. CAPACITY OF MAN AND MALLEABILITY OF NATURE
Nothing in the world is created without a purpose. Thus, mankind must have the realization of purpose in space and time, in order to escape from cynicism. Without the existence of the moral obligation, God’ purposiveness or might is perished. Henceforth, men are required to Since everything was created for a purpose the realization of that purpose must be possible in space and time.