2. The lower lethal temperature for development of

2. The thermal resistance of a species may be closely identified with the genetic composition of the parent stock, as illustrated by hybrid development in two anuran species, Bufo valliceps and B. luetkeni (Ballinger and Mc Kinney, 1966). The lower lethal temperature for development of B. valliceps is 18°C; for B. luetkeni, 22°C. In their hybrids, the lower lethal limit is found to be in between that of the two parents at 195C.

3. In some animals a relationship between the total intake of food and resistance to thermal stress has been demonst­rated. Some species are more sensitive to elevated temperatures when they are starved for even short periods of time. Goldfish showed increased resistance to high temperature when placed on a high fat diet (Hoar and Cottle, 1952).

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4. The size of animal body is found to have some correlation with thermal lethal limits of animals. In some species, the smaller animals are more resistant to higher temperatures than the larger ones; in some species the reverse is noted, and in other species size is not an apparent varia­ble. Further, some smaller animals die faster at low temperatures than do larger animals of the same species, but at higher tempera­tures body size is not a factor.

5. Many species of animals have exceedingly complex life cycles during which the larval stages are not only morphologically dissimilar from the adult but also occupy different ecological niches. In the wharf crab, Sesarma cinereum, thermal requirements of the planktonic zoeal stages are different from those of adults because these larvae are limited to a smallar temperature range than are the adults.

6. The female sex is found to be more tolerant than males to the temperature fluctuations.

7. Among certain invertebrates, such as, in some crabs moulting adve­rsely affected heat resistance, but had no effect on other species.

8. Mud-flat snails, Nassarius obsoleta, which are heavily infected with trematode larvae (i.e., parasites) cannot withstand high tempe­ratures like the non-parasitized snails.

9. Hormones have been shown to influence cold and warm resistance as well as acclimation (viz., temperature adaptation) to temperature, especially in mam­mals and a few other invertebrates.

10. Acclimatization (see section 11-4-7) of the fish Tilapia zilli to high temperature of 30°C leads to higher values of haematological parameters (viz., R.B.C. count. W.B.C. count, Hb concentration and Hacmatocrit, etc.), while low temperature causes a depression of these values (Farghaly et al., 1973) Similar changes in blood parameters due to temperature have been observed in many other fishes such as Heteropneustes Fossilis (Pandey, 1977). Salmo gairdneri (De wilde and Houston, 1967), Abramis brama and Lucioperca lucioperca (Molnar et al., 1960).