1. Physical and Technical Factors:
These include the physical characteristic as soil, climate, weather rainfall etc. In the dry regions where the rainfall is scanty and where there is high uncertainty of monsoons, the dependence is on jowar and bajra. Water logging areas cultivate rice.
Cropping pattern also depend upon irrigation facilities. Where ever water is available, not only can a different crop be grown but even double or triple cropping will be possible. When new irrigation facilities are provided, the whole method of cultivation may change. It is possible that because of lack of capital, agricultural pre-requisites, better implementation, improved seeds and finance for getting fertilisers, it might not have been the right crop that was being grown; but given these facilities, the cropping pattern may change.
2. Economic Factors:
Economic motivation is the most important in determining the cropping pattern of the country. Among the various economic factors affecting crop pattern, the following are important:
(i) Price and Income Maximisation:
Price variations exert an important influence on acreage shifts. The variation in the inter-crop prices led to shifts in acreage as between the crops. The maintenance of a stable level of prices for a crop provides a better incentive to the producer to increase the output than what a very high level of price does, if there is no uncertainty of this level being maintained over a number of years.
(ii) Farm Size:
There is a relationship between the farm size and the cropping pattern. The small farmers are first interested in producing food grain for their requirements. Small holder therefore devotes relatively small acreage to cash crops than large holders.
(iii) Insurance against Risk:
The need to minimise the risk of crop failures not only explains diversification but also some specific features of crop patterns.
(iv) Availability of Inputs:
Seeds, fertilizers, water storage, marketing, transport etc. also affect the cropping pattern.
Under the crop sharing system, the landlord has a dominant voice in the choice of the cropping pattern and this helps in the adoption of income maximising crop adjustments.
3. Government Policies:
The legislative and administrative policies of the government may also affect the cropping pattern. Food Crops Acts, Land Use Acts, intensive schemes for paddy, for cotton and oilseeds, subsidies affect the cropping pattern.
The real difficulty in adopting a better cropping pattern is that the farmer may not have the requisite capital to invest now or posses the know-how for better procurements.