Executive SummaryADHD is the leading disorder diagnosed in elementary school-aged children. These children display behaviors that could seem normal for children their age sometimes causing a misdiagnosis. The behaviors that they display can hinder the child both at home and in the classroom. Teachers have come up with teaching methods that work successfully for them in the classroom. Teaching a child with ADHD definitely takes time and bits of patience, which teachers tend to have. On the other hand, parents sometimes struggle when it comes to teaching their child at home because of a lack of knowledge. Caring for a child with a disorder such as ADHD is definitely a challenge and parents can learn different strategies from their child’s teacher. The downside to the disorder is that there is no cure for ADHD. Scientists are actively researching to figure out the direct cause of ADHD but their findings so far exhibit a host of factors that can contribute to a child inheriting ADHD. ADHD can only be clinically diagnosed after exhibiting a series of several factors: severity, early onset, duration, impact, settings, inattention, and hyperactivity. If a child does not display each of the several factors then the child cannot be formally diagnosed. Many children that are diagnosed with ADHD are either prescribed stimulants, a type of medication that increases chemicals released into the brain or receive some form of therapy. There are programs that are offered through the state especially for children with a disability such as ADHD. Individualized Education Programs are offered to children with ADHD free of charge. These programs come out to the school to help the children in whatever areas they may need help in. The programs also ensure parent participation in their child’s education. Parents play a crucial role in the success of their children and taking the necessary steps for them to learn and grow is definitely important. Many parents are unaware of these types of programs that are offered for children with ADHD. Caring for a child with a disability as such is difficult, “it takes a village to raise a child”.IntroductionWhen children are born, some are born with different disabilities that can hinder them from completing specific tasks. ADHD is one of the disabilities that a child can be born with that affects some of the functions of the brain which in turn affects a child’s learning ability as well as simple motor skills. ADHD makes it hard to teach a child effectively in an elementary classroom setting if the teacher is not prepared to put in the extra work. With time, teachers have come up with methods to help successfully teach a child with ADHD. It isn’t always an easy task, but if executed properly everyone will benefit. The public school systems have been finding it hard to come up with funding which in turn causes the children to suffer the most. Classrooms become increasingly crowded making it a bit more strenuous for the teachers as well as the children. Teachers in most cases have to improvise during lessons to cater to the needs of every child in the classroom.ADHDAttention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, also known as ADHD is a mental disorder that is leading disorder identified in young children. Figure 1. Displays state by state percentages of children diagnosed with ADHD in the years 2011-2012. ADHD is more commonly diagnosed in boys than in girls (BMC Psychiatry, 2013. Some symptoms include, the inability to focus, excessive movement without a cause, and abrupt actions without thought. Figure (1.) State by State representation of percentages of children diagnosed with ADHD between the years 2011-2012. The lighter colored states are the areas where fewer children were diagnosed with ADHD and the darker colored states are the states that have more children diagnosed with ADHD. As shown on the map, the east coast seems to have more children that were diagnosed with ADHD at the time. Causes of ADHDA direct cause ADHD has yet to be identified but research is still being conducted by scientists. Many children that are diagnosed with ADHD have a relative that also has ADHD. Developing this disorder could also be a result of premature birth, brain injury sustained at birth, as well as smoking during pregnancy. There have also been studies that suggest a link between excessive television at a young age with future attention issues. Identifying ADHDADHD is identified in children before they reach school-age. When children display behavioral issues in class or poor performance, the first thing suspected is ADHD. Some of the behaviors displayed in children with ADHD are typically normal for young children. It is only diagnosed as ADHD when the behaviors are abnormal. ADHD can only be clinically diagnosed and the child must exhibit several characteristics to be formally diagnosed. Severity- Behavior is observed more frequently than other children at that ageEarly Onset- Symptoms are observed before the age of 7Duration- Symptoms must be present for at least 6 months prior to an evaluationImpact- the negative impact the symptoms have on a child socially and academicallySettings- symptoms are observed in various settingsInattention- the inability to stay focused and on task, disengages when it comes to schoolwork, loses or misplaces items that are necessary to complete specific tasks, does not follow direction or instructions. Hyperactivity- fidgety, cannot stay in his or her seat when instructed, difficulty playing quietly, and interrupts othersTreatment for ADHDAlthough there are treatments for ADHD, there is no cure. Treatment for ADHD typically consists of various medications and talk therapy.MedicationsStimulants are the most common medications that are prescribed to children with ADHD. Stimulants increase the monoamine neurotransmitters: dopamine and norepinephrine, brain chemicals that are responsible for thinking and attention. The medications are intended to reduce hyperactivity, and improve their ability to work, learn, and grow. Children that are prescribed medication must be watched closely by the doctor for safety precautions. Then there are non-stimulants are the alternatives for stimulants that have exasperating side effects, or even used along with stimulants to increase the effectiveness. Non-stimulants are just as effective as stimulants, they just take a longer time to work. Figure 2. There are so many different medications that are prescribed to children with ADHD. I most cases, children are instructed to take medication multiple times per day. Figure (2.) Common medications that are prescribed to children with ADHD. These medications are used to increase brain chemicals. Each of the medications lasts for different periods of time. TherapiesChildren that are diagnosed with ADHD are encouraged to attend psychotherapy regularly. Behavioral therapy is a psychotherapy that is designed to help a person change their behavior. This specific therapy teaches one how to identify and monitor their own behaviors. AcademicsChildren with ADHD are typically associated with poor behavior, poor grades, and low test scores. Parent(s) may or may not be able to identify ADHD at the site. Once a child attends elementary school, the teachers are able to identify and notify the parent(s) of their observations. It is very important to catch and treat the disorder as soon as possible. If a child is receiving the proper treatment, it would benefit them academically as well as socially. Children are given an educational evaluation that assesses the extent to which the symptoms of ADHD are affecting them in the classroom. Although children with ADHD have issues succeeding in the classroom, they have an average IQ just as any other child their age. Educational Rights for Children with ADHDThere are two Federal Laws that are put in place to ensure children with a disability such as ADHD are educated equally. Section 502 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, requires children with disabilities be granted access to and programs or activities that are Federally funded. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, ensures that students with disabilities are granted access to Free Appropriate Public Education that is tailored to their needs. Although these two laws seem similar there is a legal difference which Figure (3) Displays laws and programs set in place specifically for children with ADHD to receive equal educational opportunities. Figure (3). There are laws set in place specifically for children with a disorder such as ADHD. IDEA is set in place to require states to follow the statutes conditions for the funding of special education. Section 504 is a civil rights statute that requires non-discriminatory services and accommodations for individuals with disabilities. Educational Programs OfferedChildren with delayed skills or disabilities are eligible for specialized programs that cater to individualized education in public school at no cost. With the Individualized Educational Programs, parents and able to team up with teachers to create an educational plan for their child. Successful Programs/ Teaching MethodsIndividualized Educational Programs have become increasingly successful. The program is tailored to the children, parents, and teachers. The teachers and parents work together to develop goals to achieve throughout the school year. They offer services inside the classroom for these students (Bachrach, 2016). Inclusion plays a huge role when it comes to teaching a child with ADHD. Children with disabilities should never be separated because of a disability that they have. Keeping them involved in the classroom will help to keep some control over the child and help the teacher in the long run (D.Holmes, ECE Student, Nov. 27th, 2017). Unsuccessful Programs/ Teaching Methods Requiring children with ADHD to remain quiet and seated through any lesson longer than a mini lesson, which lasts between 10-15 minutes. (O.Tokley, Elementary School Teacher, December 6th, 2017). Classroom placement is also helpful when trying to keep the child focused when teaching. The child should be sat far away from windows and doors to limit outside distractions. Home LifeFamilies that have a child with ADHD go through challenges daily. These children require way more supervision than the average child. When parents have more than one child, the child that is not affected by ADHD may tend to feel left out or neglected at times (E. Bailey, 2007). This in turn causes the parents to feel a bit guilty for not splitting their time equally amongst the children. Children with ADHD may not take to the basic punishments such as timeout whereas they respond more to rewards and consequences. Parenting and caring for a child with ADHD is hard and stressful. It takes time and patience to learn how to properly care for a child with ADHD. Developing daily schedules, constantly giving instructions, disciplining, and many other things (O. Frazier, Parent of Child With ADHD, November 27th, 2017). It is emotionally and physically draining to care for a child with ADHD. Team EffortCaring for a child with ADHD is a team effort. Children need the help and teamwork of both their parents and teachers to teach them effectively. Parents have to be open to communicating with their child’s teacher daily. This communication is to help ensure work is being completed, schedules are on track, and goals that were set are being met. Communication is definitely important from the very beginning. Parents sometimes fail to identify that a child has ADHD and all you can do is document the behaviors, report it to the school district, which leads to psychological testing at the school. Educators have to manage based on what the parents are willing to accept and follow through on (O.Tokley, Elementary School Teacher, December 6th, 2017). Parents with more than one child should definitely take notes from their child’s teacher on how to teach and care for a child with ADHD while also tending to their other children. Balancing time between children takes time to get used to, but it’s doable. Constantly keeping the child involved in daily activities such as chores and clubs will keep the child from being disruptive and unmanageable. These activities will resemble classroom settings. Teachers tend to designate children with a disability such as ADHD to be classroom helpers so that they are constantly moving. Allowing them to use movements in helpful ways such as passing out supplies, being a messenger, leading class workouts, and being the line leader. When a child is actively involved it takes some of the pressure off of the parent allowing them to spend a bit more time to relax and spend time with the other children. ConclusionOverall, teaching a child with ADHD is challenging for both the parent(s) as well as the teacher(s). Parents and teachers should be able to work together as a team to ensure the needs of the child are being met. Teachers come in contact with a child that has ADHD more often than anyone else. They have to come up with strategies and tactics to effectively teach a child with ADHD while also tending to the needs of every other child in the classroom. Parents can definitely benefit at home from some of the strategies and tactics that teachers utilize in the classroom, especially if they have more than one child. ADHD is a disability that cannot be cured, therefore accommodations have to be made in order for the children that are diagnosed with this disorder to function normally. Both teachers and parents have admitted that working together helps both at home and at school. When the parents and teachers have the same goals for the child it makes it easier for the goals to be achieved. Children with ADHD are capable of being just as successful as any other child their age. Both the state and government have passed laws that ensure children with disabilities are allotted equal educational opportunities without being discriminated against. With the support from families and teachers, these children are destined to overcome stereotypes. CitationsAmerican Psychiatric Association. (2014). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (5th ed.). Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing.Bachrach, S. J. (Ed.). (2016, September). Individualized Education Programs (IEPs). Retrieved December 8, 2017, from http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/iep.htmlBailey, E. (2007, August 28). Classroom Management of ADHD | HealthCentral. Retrieved December 3, 2017, from https://www.healthcentral.com/article/classroom-management-of-adhdBMC Psychiatry. (2013, November 9). ADHD in girls and boys – gender differences in co-existing symptoms and executive function measures. Retrieved November 28, 2107, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3827008/Centers for Disease and Control and Prevention. (2017, November 13). Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Retrieved December 1, 2017, from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.htmlFrazier, O. (2017, November 27). Parent of Child with ADHD Personal interview.Government, U. S. (2012). Identifying and treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a resource for school .. Place of publication not identified: Books Llc.Holmes, D. (2017, November 27). Early Childhood Education Student Telephone interview.Loe, I. M., & Feldman, H. M. (2007, June 14). Academic and Educational Outcomes of Children With ADHD | Journal of Pediatric Psychology | Oxford Academic. Retrieved December 1, 2017, from https://academic.oup.com/jpepsy/article/32/6/643/1021192Tokley, O. (2017, December 6). Interview with Elementary School teacher (ADHD) Personal interview.