The journey involved in a country’s progress from a backward poverty stricken subsistence economy to a growing full-fledged development of resources and technical positions, in which technical decisions are made, must be held by men with specific and opposite training and the rest of the administrative structure must rely upon these men for solutions to specific problems. Again of late, there has been erosion in the administrative structure and a departure from the narrow and straight path of rectitude to subservience to vested interests.
Administration is an essential part of the total developmental process and the improvements can be brought but manpower potentialities are often hazardous. Then, there is the dilemma of rapid accelerating growth in technology.
The increased scientific knowledge and specialization has brought in its wake many problems which have direct impact on the administrative policies and practices. While dealing with a new administrative challenge.
Douglas Esminger observed, “Yet another need is for the administrative system to accept fully, emotionally as well as intellectually, the importance of the technician in the administrative structure about, if the political executives provide the necessary leadership in terms of integrity, conscious attention to the overall direction of the administrative machinery and the promotion of clean and responsive administration.
Public Administration in operation, in developing countries, has undergone a good deal of change in response to the new needs. When the new focus of the state activity is the welfare of the people, the orientation and the behaviour of the civil servant have to change.
Land Hewart said, “In the days of despotic kings the method was to defy parliament-and it failed. In these days the method is to cajole, to coerce, and to use parliament-and it is strangely successful. The old despotism which was defeated, offered a parliament challenge.
The new despotism which is not yet defeated, gives parliament an anesthesia. The strategy is different, but the goal is the same. It is to subordinate parliament, to evade the Courts and to render the will of the executive unfettered and supreme”. However, the views suffer from factual error because civil servants no doubt enjoy extensive powers but these powers are used only under the general control and supervision of the parliament.
Laski said, “Both the nature of his charges, and the evidence he adduced in their support, were rather evidence of his inability to understand the nature of the modern administrative process than to a deliberate effort in the part of civil servants to get power into their own hands”.
Today, public administration has to play a crucial role not only in the field of political economic and social development but also in efficient running of the government as well.
With these characteristics of developing societies in mind and the need for administrative response, let us understand the role of public administration in its true perspective.