A government organisation in every country is divided into a number of departments, services and agencies, which are further sub-divided into administrative units to facilitate work.
In orders to see that these various units, agencies and departments work in harmony with each other co-ordination becomes necessary. Co-ordination is the first principle of organisation; it is also the first principle of management.
It is thus, a very important problem in modern administration. In the words of White, “Co-ordination is the adjustment of the functions of the parts to each other, and of the movement and operation of parts in tune so that each can make its maximum contribution to the product of the whole.”Co-ordination”, says Money “is the orderly arrangement of group effort, to provide unity of action in the pursuit of a common purpose”.
Need for co-ordination arises due to three main factors: (1) to avoid or resolve conflicts or overlapping in the work of the employees or units of an organisation. (2) to prevent or discourage too much concentration on one aspect of work to the exclusion of the other aspects; and (3) to curb the growing tendency towards empire-building or greed for power prevalent in the different units of agency.
Co-ordination is a necessary precondition of all successful management, specially in government administration due to multiplication of the tasks of government organisations and its many agencies.
Co-ordination has both negative and positive connotation. Negatively, coordination means the removal of conflicts overlapping in administration; positively it means the fostering of a spirit of cooperation and camaraderie among the workers of an organisation.