The country stands second in the reserve of manganese ore in the world after Zimbabwe. Indian manganese is considered to be of good quality and contains 54% of manganese. The igneous rocks which contain manganese ore are Garnet, Khondalite, Gneiss mainly in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.
i. Occurs mainly in the Dharwas system of rocks
ii. Pyrotusite is the main ore.
iii. India is the third largest produces after Russia and Ghana.
Production and Distribution:
The total in situ reserves of magnesite are about 4406 million tonnes out of which 104 million tonnes are in the proved 135 million tonnes are probale and 167 million tonnes are in possible categories. The production manganese ore at 2.88 million tones in 2010-11. Of the total production of manganese ore in 2010-11, Madhya Pradesh contributed 25% Odisha 23% Maharashtra 22% Karnataka 14% and Andhra Pradesh 10%.
The remaining 7% was jointly shared by Goa, Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Jharkhand. Main reserves fall in Karnataka, followed by Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Goa. Minor occurrences of manganese are in Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Rajasthan and West Bengal. 97 per cent of India’s manganese ore is mined in the States of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh produce more than half of the national total. Four-fifths of the production is consumed in the country itself and 1/5th is exported. Only low grade manganese ore is exported. Japan buys two-thirds of the India’s export.
Madhya Pradesh has deposits of manganese in Balaghat district, in Chhindwara district and in Jhabua district. Other places in the State where deposits are found are —districts of Jabalpur, Nimar, Dewas and Sehare.
This state has good deposits of manganese in Nagpur district, in Bhandara district and in Ratnagiri district. Some important mining centres are Kudergaon, Mansar, Kandir Morgaon, Kurmura, Kusumbh, Phitla spread over in these district.
In Orissa the important centres are-Koraput, Sundergarh, Kalahandi, Cuttack, Keonjhar and Mayurbhanj district.
Deposits of manganese are found in North Kanara, Tumkur, Sandur and Shimoga districts in Dharwar rocks.
In Tamil Nadu the chalk hills are in Salem district has good deposits of manganese. The districts of Panchmahal, Vadodara of Gujarat, Banswara, Udaipur and Pali districts of Rajasthan have low and medium grade manganese. The good quality of manganese occurs in Almora and Chamoli districts of Uttarakhand.
Karnataka and Gujarat have poor type of manganese but Goa has comparatively better quality of manganese.