Several indices are used to identify the clustering of industries, important among them are: (i) the number of industrial units, (ii) number of industrial workers, (iii) quantum of power used for industrial purposes, (iv) total industrial output, and (v) value added by manufacturing.
(a) Ahmedabad Vadodara Industrial Region:
Ahmedabad to Vadodara and Bharuch.
(i) Cotton is grown in the region.
(ii) Availability of cheap land.
(iii) Availability of plenty of cheap skilled and unskilled labour.
(iv) Development of efficient rail and road transportation.
(v) Availability of capital with the local Gujaratis and Marwaris.
(vi) Discovery of oil in the region.
(vii) Development of petro-chemicals on account of availability of oil.
(viii) Nearness to Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Maharashtra areas, serving market for the produced manufactured.
(ix) Nearness to Kandla port.
(x) Availability of market owing to increase in population in India.
The region is an important industrial hub of India and has a very developed petro-chemical, textiles, jewellery, pharmaceuticals, drugs, diamond cutting, leather, and glassware’s, plastics, chemicals, fertilizers and engineering goods industries. Ahmedabad is known as the Manchester of India on account of having heavy concentration of textile manufacturing’s Ahmedabad, Surat, Vadodara, and Bharauch Surindernagar.
(b) Mumbai Pune Industrial Region:
The major geographic and economic factors are:
(i) Mumbai is a natural harbour. This facilitates imports and exports.
(ii) Parsis, a community of Mumbai, have ample capital for investment in manufacturing industries.
(iii) Cotton is cultivated in the region.
(iv) Hydro electricity is made available from Tata Hydro Electric Works situated nearby.
(v) The region is well connected with parts of the country with efficient rail, road and air service.
(vi) Plenty of cheap labour both skilled and unskilled is available in the region or it comes from outside.
(vii) The region has a well-developed infrastructure for the development of different types of industries based on agro and mineral raw materials.
The major industries flourishing in this industrial region are textiles, ships, automobiles, chemicals, plastics, cinematography, pharmaceuticals, machines parts, engineeering goods petro-chemicals, toys, leather goods, electronics, armament, soap and detergents etc. Mumbai is known as Cottonopolis of India.
(c) The Hoogly Industrial Region:
The principal industrial region of India is the state of West Bengal. The region sprawls from Naihate to Budge along the left bank and from Tribeni to Nalpur along the right bank of the Hoogly River. This region is known for the localization a large number of industries like those of jute, silk, cotton textiles, paper, electrical, engineering goods, printing machines, sewing machines, leather goods, match woodwork, automobiles ship and boat construction etc. The region has flourished on account of:
(i) Early Start:
This old trading centre of the 17th century has sprang up on a major industrial centre of India engaged in manufacturing a long list of agro, forest and mineral based industries.
(ii) On account of dense population in and around plenty of cheap labour both skilled and unskilled is readily available. The industrial region as well as in Orissa, Assam, Bihar etc.
(iii) Water transportation plays a vital role in the growth of this industrial centre.
(iv) Rail and road transportation is equally developed and has played an important role in transporting raw material from the adjoining areas to the Hoogly Basin and distributing finished products to the market centres.
(v) Kolkata is one of the largest trading and commercial centre of India. Thus facilitating marketing of the manufactured products.
(vi) Jute is grown in the state of West Bengal and it is also imported from Bangladesh for meeting the requirement of the jute industry.
(vii) In the initial stages of development of manufacturing in the Hoogly basin, capital investment was done by the Britishers. Innumerable jute mills, paper mills and other industries have been set up on both sides of the river for which coal used to be obtained from the coal mines of the state as well as from Jharkhand state and now hydro-electricity from the Damodar Valley Corporation multipurpose project.
By 1921, the region had earned a name as a major industrial region in India. And within a span of 80 years, the region has witnessed a phenomenal growth in the types ans size of manufacturing’s.
With the result the Hoogly Basin industrial region has become highly congested, polluted and urbanized. Presently it suffers from all the maladies of urbanization like unhygenic conditions, smoky environment, traffic jams, high rents, sky high land prices and frequent sight of slum areas.
The construction of Farakka Barrage and that of Haldia Port further gave boost to the industrial development in the Hoogli basin. The Bramputra River serves an important water way for movement of cargo like tea, timber etc from Assam and transportation of a variety of finished products up stream for marketing in the north eastern states.
Madurai Industrial Region:
The region encompasses states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The region is known for manufacturing of cotton, silk textiles, sugar refining, leather goods, auto and aircraft parts, electronics, tele-communication equipment, watches, electricals, engineering goods etc.
The main geographic and economic factors are:
1. Hydro-electricity is obtained from Metten Sivasamudram. Papnasam, Pykara and Sharavati power projects. Technical labour is in plenty in the region or comes from other states of India.
2. Cheap local labour is available in the region.
3. Climate favours industrial activity.
4. A wide market for the products exists in and around the region.
5. Cotton is grown in these two states as well as in Andhra Pradesh nearby. Coimbatore is a major centre for manufacturing cotton textiles, sugar refining, tanneries, cement etc. The city is appropriately called the Manchester of Tamil Nadu o.i account of major concentration of cotton textile mills.
The coffee city of India has heavy concentration of a variety of manufacturing including those of high Tech. industries like computers, aircraft manufacturing, (HAL), electrical. Electronics, machine tools (HMT), Telephones and other communication equipment etc. Silk textiles are its speciality. Bhadrawati is an iron and steel centre. It is a seat of Visvesvarayya iron and steel works. Shivakasi, Tiruchirapalli, Mettur, Mysore etc. are other important industrial towns of this industrial region.
(e) Chota Nagpur Plateau Industrial Region:
This region is known as ruler of India because of its richness in different minerals and sources of power. The region embraces the parts of Jharkhand, Orissa and West Bengal. The nearness of coal in the Damodar valley and iron ore in the Jharkhand Orissa -mineral belt has attributed to the development of iron and steel and other allied industries in the region. A number of factors favour manufacturing in the region.
(i) Coal and water power is locally available from local coal and DVC.
(ii) The region is having dense population in the adjoining states which provide cheap labour.
(iii) Kolkata serves as the largest market for the products of the region.
(iv) The tribal people provide cheap unskilled labour for different processes related to manufacturings.
(v) Means of transportation, rail and road are well developed which help in transportation of products in the markets.
(vi) The region has Tata Iron and Steel Company Jamshedpur, Hindustan Steel Ltd of Durgapur and Bokaro. The development of iron and steel industry has laid the foundation for establishment of various other industries by supplying iron and steel to them.
The major industries of the region are locomotives, automobiles, engineering goods, electricals, electronics, cement, fertilizers, paper etc. The major centres of production are Sindri, Hazaribagh, Jamshedpur, Daltonganj, Garwa, Japla and Ranchi.
(f) Delhi and Adjoining Industrial Region:
This region owes its development after independence. The industries have sprang up in Delhi and the adjoining parts of Delhi, which fall in U.P and Haryana and Rajasthan states. The industries have been concentrated on-
(i) Agra, Mathura, Meerut, Saharanpur in UP
(ii) Faridabad, Gurqaon, Ballabhgarh, Soncpat in Haryana.
(iii) Alwar: Rajasthan
The major contributory factors are:
(i) Availability of hydro-electricity from Bhakra Nangal Project.
(ii) Thermal electricity being generated in Delhi.
(iii) Availability of plenty of skilled and unskilled labour in the region.
(iv) Availability of market in Delhi, Haryana. Punjab and Rajasthan etc in particular and other parts of the country in general.
(v) Incentives provided by the state Governments for the development of industries.
(vi) There exists a network of efficient transportation system of rail and road. The major industries are:
Textiles, chemical, cycles, tractors, engineering goods, electronic, electric equipment. Sugar refining, flour milling, petro chemicals, auto mobiles, oil refining, sports goods, paper manufacturing etc. Gurgaon has assumed special importance for development of automobiles and electronics. The important out industrial centres are. Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Gurgaon, Sonepat, Ballabhgarh, Rohtak, Panipat, Modinagar, Saharanpur. Meerut, Yamunanagaretc.
Minor Industrial Regions are:
In this industrial region, different types of manufacturing have been -developed like those of cotton textile, rail coaches, rubber tyres and tubes, automobiles, electronics, oil refining etc. The major factors are:
(i) Port facilities.
(ii) Agro based industries get raw material from the hinterland of Chennai port.
(iii) Capital is locally available.
(iv) Plenty of cheap labour in the state of Tamil Nadu.
(v) Rail, road, water and air transportation is very well developed.
2. Godavri Krishna Delta:
This region is known for tobacco, sugar, vegetable oil, textiles, flour milling etc. Agro based industries have been developed.
3. Assam Valley:
Tea processing, rice shelling .Textiles, oil refining, consumer goods etc.
Sugar, leather goods, textiles, aircraft parts etc
5. Indore Ujjain:
Cotton textiles, scooters, engineering goods, consumer goods etc.
6. Nagpur Wardha:
Textiles, engineering goods, glass, clay industries etc.
7. Kohlapur Sangli:
Cotton textiles, leather goods etc.
Cotton textiles, leather goods, engineering industries.
9. Northern Bihar and Eastern UP:
10. Belgaun Dharwar:
Textiles, rail equipment.
Southern part of Kerala, cashew processing, coir coconut, oil handicrafts etc.
Apart from major and minor these industrial regions, there are a number of industrial districts also where industrial activities of different types are flourishing. These industrial districts are Jammu, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Agra, Raipur, Cuttack, Jabalpore, Gwalior, North Arcot, Tiruneveli, and Ramnathpuram.
Besides, engineering goods, petroleum refining, petrochemicals, leather, synthetic and plastic goods, chemical drugs, fertilisers, electrical, shipbuilding, electronics, software, transport equipments and food industries also developed. Important industrial centres are Mumbai, Kolaba, Kalyan, Thane, Trombay, Pune, Pimpri, Nashik, Manmad, Solapur, Ahmednagar, Satara and Sangli.