Essay on Goa and Littoral of Karnataka

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Surface Features:

In the absence of basalt the uplands do not rise in steps. At some places rivers have cut quite deep into the Western Ghats forming relatively broad basins one in Goa and the other in the neighbourhood of Mangalore.

These spurs approach the coast so close that the breadth of the lowland is reduced to less than 5 km. at places. Running like ridges, the spurs rise towards the east where they attain heights more than 600 metres near the Ghats. The coastal area has small hills in large numbers.

The water falls have been formed due to steep slope of Ghat at some place. The Sharavati while leaping over such a sheer steep face of the Ghats makes impressive waterfalls called the Gersoppa Falls which are 249 metres in height. These Falls have been harnessed for developing hydro-electric power.

Dudh Sagar Falls, 47 km east of Marmagao are also a potential source of hydro-electric power.

There are numerous rivers crossing the littoral and have cut valleys which end in estuary like creeks north of Karwar but in lagoons south of it. They are generally navigable by country boats. The Rachol and the Mandovi in Goa allow stealers to ply deep into the interior.


It is a region of tropical monsoon climate and tropical evergreen forests. Annual rainfall is over 250 cm. in the coastal area and ever 500cm in some areas of Ghats.


Rice is the most important crop in the alluvial valleys occupying more than three- fourths of the cropped area. Two crops of rice are raised in a year though at some favourable places even a third crop is grown. Coconut palms grown mainly along the coast and river courses and irrigated areca- nut palms are important cash crops of this region. South Kanara (Dakshina Kannad) is important for raising cashew plants.

Various pulses are produced during the dry season after harvesting the rice crop. Some low-level areas are submerged under a few feet of water during the rainy season. Such lands called Patla in South Kanara district being fertile are cultivated after the rainy season is over, provided that irrigation is available.


There is dense evergreen forest due to heavy rainfall and high temperature. Forests cover aboui 3u percent of the land. In the valleys receiving less rainfall plantations of teak have been introduced. Besides teak and other timber, cane, bamboo and firewood are extracted from the forests of this region. Forests are a major source of income in the Ghats.

Minerals and Industries:

There are few important minerals. Manganese and iron ores are mined in Goa for export. As the mines are close to Marmagao Port, transportation charges of ores over land are negligible. The ores are of high-grade and are mined by cheap open cast methods.

Production of iron ore and manganese ore increased manifold after 1984 as a result of a great demand for these high-grade ores from Japan. Production of iron ore which was just five thousand tonnes in 1948 rose to 13.15 million tonns in 1984.

Tourism is a leading industry of Goa. There are broad, clean and palm-fringed beaches, churches, coconut groves dotting the banks of the inland waterways, waterfalls, forest-clad hills and good hotel facilities which attract almost 0.8 million tourists to Goa every year.

Most of the tourists come from the other parts of country. Tourists visit Goa mainly during the months from November to February when the season is relatively cool and dry. Kaiga 55 km away from Karawar has nuclear power plant.