Now to control this present population problem of India, broadly four-fold measures would be much required: (a) economic measures, (b) social measures, (c) family planning measures and (d) administrative measures.
To contain the pace of growth of population in India economic measures can offer a permanent solution to the problem. Considering the gravity of the situation, the most of the economic measures require being included are long-term in nature. These are as follows:
1. Modernization of Agriculture:
In India, the primitive method of agriculture is still being followed in various parts of the country which needs to be replaced by better methods. Thus modernized improved methods should be introduced in the agricultural operations throughout the country for raising its productivity.
Increased agricultural productivity will raise the total agricultural production of the country which in turn can support this increasing size of population of the country. This increased agricultural production can also raise the standard of living of the rural people which will again reduce the birth rate indirectly.
2. Industrial Development:
As the agricultural sector of the country is over burdened with huge population pressure thus industrialization can transfer this surplus working force from agriculture to other sectors.
Moreover, growing industrial activity can also increase the urge of industrial workers to raise their standard of living which in turn will motivate them to restrict the size of their family. Thus the Government should undertake some radical measures for rapid industrialization of the country.
3. Urbanisation and More Employment Opportunities in Urban Areas:
Steps must be taken for the growth of urban centres in the country along with the creation of more job opportunities in these urban areas. This will lead to migration of population from rural to urban areas which will indirectly work as a powerful check on the growth of population in India.
4. Removal of Poverty and Ensuring Minimum Economic Amenities:
Poor people normally remain unconcerned about limiting the size of their families. Thus proper steps should be taken by the Government for the removal of poverty in India. Once the poor people are assured of basic economic amenities of life their attitudes towards their families will also undergo a sea change. Thus the Government has got a responsibility to guarantee the right to work and ensure a minimum wage to everyone.
Population explosion is also resulted from some social evils. Thus to check population growth in India following social measures are to be undertaken:
1. Postponement of the Marriage:
The raising of the minimum age of marriage both through legislation and arousing consciousness can play an effective role in checking population growth by reducing the effective child-bearing period and particularly knocking off the most fertile period from the point of child bearing.
2. Spread of education:
Spread of education can play an effective role in checking the growth rate of population in India. Education and general enlightenment of the people can create desire for smaller families. Education can make a frontal attack on superstitions and orthodoxy and also induces people to go for late marriage and to adopt family planning norms.
3. Improving the Status of Women:
In India women, more particularly rural women, are enjoying a very poor social status. Although the constitution of the country guaranteed equal status for men and women but a high degree of discrimination between them still prevails leading to a growth of family size. Increasing employment of women and the improvement of their social status can effectively reduce the birth rate of population in India.
Family Planning Measures:
Family Planning measures can play an effective role in controlling population explosion in India. In China, the Family Planning Programme has been successful in bringing down the birth rate to 21 per thousand at present whereas it is 31 per thousand in India. This has become possible through widespread use of contraceptives as nearly 74 per cent of married women of child bearing age use contraceptives in China. The following are some of the family planning measures which are very important in Indian context:
1. Arousing Consciousness:
Through public information programme, people of India should be made more conscious about the usefulness of family planning programme. All media of publicity should be used for this purpose.
2. Family Planning Centres:
Opening of family planning centers throughout the country can play an effective role in limiting the size of family. The Health Department must put much emphasis on setting up family planning clinics for spreading knowledge about the use of contraceptives and other methods of birth control. Moreover a good number of contraceptive distribution centers should be established both in the urban as well as rural areas of the country.
In the family planning programme of India more importance by stressed on conducting research in the area like demography, reproductive biology, fertility control etc.
Present situation in connection with population expositions in India demands some hard administrative measures.
1. Introduction of Two-child Norm:
The government of India should approve the two-child norm and put severe restrictions on limiting the size of family as it is done in China.
2. Incentives and Disincentives:
The Government should introduce various incentive schemes for adopting small family norm such as cash incentive, preference for employment, preference for promotion etc. likewise, in respect of the violation of family planning norms, disincentive schemes should be introduced for withdrawing these incentives totally.
3. To Stop Influx of Population:
A significant portion of the increase in the population of the country is due to continuous immigration of population from the neighbouring countries. Thus this influx of population in the form of infiltration should be stopped completely and proper steps should be devised to check this large scale infiltration.
These steps include sealing of international border, creation of no-man’s land, increased patrolling, and imposition of night curfew on border areas and to tone up border administration effectively. Thus to control this high rate of growth of population in India all the above-mentioned four-fold measures should be introduced simultaneously.