During Le Corbusier used two different ways. The

 

During the 1950s India was in a post-colonisation phase,
thus an innovation and modernisation was needed. In 1951, Le Corbusier was
commissioned to design the Villa by the secretary of the Millowners -Surottam
Hutheesing. His main intention was to show his social position in the society
by having a building that reflects his lifestyle. However, when the plans were
finished he sold them to a fellow millowner- Shyamubhai Shodhan. Despite having
a different lifestyle and a new site for the project he was ready to start the
construction immediately. Luckily, Le Corbusier’s projects were always dictated
priori by the Indians, so the change of plot was a perfectly natural event.

Le Corbusier is known for the use of his ‘ Five Points”,
meaning that he incorporated five principles in each of his buildings. While
designing the Villa, however he decided to deviate from his so called
signature, by using brise-soleil to replace the free-façade and with the use of
rotational and centrifugal forces to fragment the solids  , he broke the rules of the grid.

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Even though the plans reveal a simplistic structure, the
design is created from an aggregate of pieces that appear to be unconnected,
creating an unique volume. That itself broadens the functionality of the spaces
within, making it programmable for the needs of its inhabitants. For example
looking at the ground floor plan fifty percent of the spaces are open, leaving
the other half ( the library and the bedroom) surrounded by numerous porches
and open spaces. That allows the inhabitants , if needed, to change the
purposes of the rooms.  This is because while
organising the ground floor plan, Le Corbusier used two different ways. The
first one being based on a structural grid and the other on tartan grid.The
structural grid is formulated by the layout of the columns within a nine square
grid. The superimposed tartan grid itself, reveals the logic of the placement
of the structural grid. A contrast between the horizontal grid and the vertical
planes then appears, due to the fact that they are put outside of the nine
square grid. This creates therefore subtracting from the solids to create
porosity, and therefore more heterogeneous spaces.

The house is strongly influenced by some of the previous
projects of the architect. He himself referred to it as an update to Villa
Savoye of 1929-30 at Poissy, but placed in tropical and Indian setting. The metamorphosis
consist of the emergence of the briese-soleil that replaces the free-façade and
creates a sense of depth. Moreover it establishes a scale and proportion by
forming an irregular grid. Each one of them acts like a house within a house, behind
which stay windows and doors that act as the first façade of the building.  However, another similarity is the use of a
ramp ( ref. to Villa Savoye), that joins the different levels of the house. It
starts on the ground floor and finishes on the third where the forces are
realised in voids. The ramp is a tool Corbusier uses in many of his designs. In
that way he shows consideration of the relationship between different levels.
About it he says: “A stair separates one story from another; A ramp connects”.  Although the effect he achieves with a game of
light and shadow, thanks to openings, is absent in his projects of the
twenties.

It is exactly that game of light and shadow that makes the Villa
appear like an everchanging sculpture. The lack of internal partitions inspired
Le Corbusier to add light as an architectural element, that together with the
warm Indian breeze created an environment that is strong to nature. “choreographer
movement through light , from cave like entrance horizontally through the
double height, multicoloured kaleidoscopic living room, out onto the oblong
pool and the undulating lawns; or vertically through dark criss-crossing ramp
that opens into series of cascading terraces underneath a pierced parasol which
through you can see the sky. ” The microclimate is enhanced by landscape items
like a lawn and a pool placed on the windward side of the house.

The design was strongly influenced by the varying Indian
climate- having three main seasons: summer, monsoon and winter. Aside from monsoon,
which sweeps into Ahmedabat in mid July, the climate it is very dry. This makes
Le Corbusier to focus and take the nature in the form of the sun, the wind, the
views and the landscapes under consideration. This is clearly shown in some of
the finishes of the raw concrete faced. The imprint of the wooden framework are
purposely left unfinished. A smooth finish can only be found under the roof
parasol and over the interior ceilings. The surface will therefore receive an
intense colour that will contrast with the raw concrete.