DipIT01 non-teaching staff of the Herald College for



DipIT01 – Personal Development Skills for Computing




3d printing

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Student Id: NP03A170100

Student Name: Manish Kunwar

B.Sc. (Hons) Computer Science

Submitted date:

Submitted to: Aastha Lamsal




take this opportunity to express our deepest and sincere gratitude to our
Module Leader Aastha Lamsal, for her insightful advice, motivating suggestions,
invaluable guidance, help and support in successful completion of this project
and also for her constant encouragement and advice throughout this module.

would like to convey thanks to the teaching and non-teaching staff of the Herald
College for their invaluable help and support throughout the period of this
module. I am also grateful to all my classmates for their help, encouragement
and invaluable suggestions.

yet more importantly, I would like to express my deep appreciation to my
parents, sister and brother for their perpetual support and encouragement
throughout the Bachelor’s degree period.











Table of Contents
1.1 General 1
1.2 Current scenario of the 3d
printing. 2
2.1 Elaboration with examples. 3
2.2 current scenario of the topic in
Nepal 4
3.1 Idea quality. 5
3.2 Plan of the implementation. 5
4.1 summary of key findings. 5
4.2 Future escalation. 5












1.1 General


printing is a form of additive manufacturing technology where a three
dimensional object is created by laying down successive layers of material. It
is also known as rapid prototyping, is a mechanized method whereby 3D objects
are quickly made on a reasonably sized machine connected to a computer
containing blueprints for the object. The 3D printing concept of custom
manufacturing is exciting to nearly everyone. This revolutionary method for
creating 3D models with the use of inkjet technology saves time and cost by
eliminating the need to design print and glue together separate model parts.
Now, it can create a complete model in a single process using 3D printing. The
basic principles include materials cartridges, flexibility of output, and
translation of code into a visible pattern (T.Prabhu, May-June 2016) (Bhandari
& Regina, April-June 2014). `

1: 3D Printing Basics


1.2 Current scenario of the 3d printing


3D printing has a wide variety of uses and it has many
applications, in manufacturing, medicine, architecture, aerospace, automotive, custom
art and design can also be put to some unconventional uses. In the current
scenario, People is trying to make stuff that not only the usual plastic used
to make the objects but also makes use of non-traditional and commonly
unavailable material to print objects. Scientists is taking successfully tested
3D printers to print ears, skin, kidney, blood vessels and bones. Instead on
typical plastic, a gel-like substance made of cells is used. Nasa also
implemented on the 3D printed food bandwagon in order to feed astronauts in
space which print chocolate and desserts from a special printer called
Chocedge. (Al-Maliki & Al-Maliki,
October 2015) (Bhandari
& Regina, April-June 2014)

Figure 2 : 3D Printing Emerging Economies


2.1 Elaboration with examples


There is a variety of printing
technique to create physical objects from digital designs.  The main differences between these processes
are in the way layers are deposited to create parts and in the materials that
are used. Some methods melt or soften material to produce the layers, while
others cure liquid materials using different sophisticated technologies. Each
method has its own advantages and drawbacks. Here are
some common technologies:

Stereo lithography – (SLA): position a perforated platform just below the surface
of a vat of liquid photo curable
polymer. A UV (Ultra Violate) laser beam then traces the first slice of an
object on the surface of this liquid, causing a very thin layer of photopolymer
to harden. The perforated platform is then lowered very slightly and another
slice is traced out and hardened by the laser. Another slice is then created,
and then another, until a complete object has been printed and can be removed
from the vat of photopolymer, drained of excess liquid, and cured.

Selective laser sintering (SLS): This builds objects by using a laser to selectively use
together successive layers of a
cocktail of powdered wax, ceramic, metal, nylon or one of a range of other

Multi-jet modelling (MJM): This again builds up objects from successive layers of

with an
inkjet-like print head used to spray on a binder solution that glues only the


Fused deposition modelling (FDM): Here a hot thermoplastic is extruded from a Temperature-controlled print head to produce fairly robust
objects to a high degree of accuracy.

A method of manufacturing known as
‘Additive manufacturing’ due to the fact that instead of removing material to
create a part, the process adds material in successive patterns to create the
desired shape. 3D Printing uses software that slices the 3D model into
layers.  Each layer is then traced onto
the build plate by the printer, once the pattern is completed, the build plate
is lowered and the next layer is added on top of the previous one. Typical
manufacturing techniques are known as ‘Subtractive Manufacturing’ because the
process is one of removing material from a preformed block.  Processes such as Milling and Cutting are
subtractive manufacturing techniques. 
This type of process creates a lot of waste since; the material that is
cut off generally cannot be used for anything else and is simply sent out as
scrap. 3D Printing eliminates such waste since the material is placed in the
location that it is needed only, the rest will be left out as empty space. 3D printing is widely adopted by many applications, in field of manufacturing, medical,
aerospace, architecture industry, automobile industry, consumer products, food
production and sociocultural sectors any many more.


Figure 3 :  3D 
Printed Nose and Ear


2.2 current scenario of the topic in Nepal


3D printing
technology is still very much in its infancy in Nepal, and even Robotic
Association of Nepal, Nepal Orthopedic Medical Hospital and local company like
Zener technology are continuously learning new things and finding new uses for
it. One area where 3D printers have turned out
to be surprisingly useful is in the area of prosthetics. Small objects, like
a centimeter square cube might take half an hour or so a segment of an
artificial arm, 18 hours. It’s fascinating to watch, and amazing to think about
the potential of all that can be achieved. An artificial or prosthetic limb must be perfectly customized
in order to be useful to the recipient. (Neve, 2017)

Oxfam has also been using 3D printing through collaborative efforts around the world, including as a first in Nepal. After the
devastating earthquake in 2015, they have been using 3D printing to create water pipes and fittings, collaborating with Field Ready, as well as a local company helping with
the fabrication of the pieces. Field Ready has been providing disaster relief
to the area in the form of several 3D printed projects as 3D printing has been shown to help with relief efforts. (Jones, 2015)



3.1 Idea quality


3D printing in the biomedical field
is that of creating limbs and other body parts out of metal or other materials
to replace lost or damaged limbs. 
Prosthetic limbs are required in many parts of the world due to injuries
sustained during war or by disease. 
Currently prosthetic limbs are very expensive and generally are not
customized for the patient’s needs.  3D
printing is being used to design and produce custom prosthetic limbs to meet
the patient’s exact requirements. By scanning the patient’s body and existing
bone structure, designers and engineers are able to re-create the lost part of
that limb.


3.2 Plan of the implementation





4.1 summary of key findings


During my research in the last couple
of years, the term 3D printing has become more known and the technology has
reached a broader public. Still, most people haven’t even known about 3D
printing while the technology has been in use for decades. Especially manufacturers
have long used these printers in their design process to create prototypes for
traditional manufacturing and research purposes.


4.2 Future escalation

Today 3D printing
can be an innovative tool for your communication support. Your customers might
not be used to the technology yet and will be curious to discover it. For people missing
an upper-limb, lack of a prosthetic is a major disability that affects their
quality of life. Everyday tasks such as tying shoelaces, eating with a knife
and fork, or using a zipper, are difficult for amputees. Missing limbs can lead
to social exclusion, and difficulty in gaining meaningful employment.