Data result of a routine procedure such

Data –   Data are facts obtained through reading, observation, calculation, measurement, etc. The amounts and other details on an organisation’s invoices, cheques or pay slips, etc, are referred to as data, For example: Data is obtained automatically, the result of a routine procedure such as invoicing ormeasurement processes. Data are non-random symbols that represent the values of attributes or events. Hence, data are facts, events and transactions stored according to an agreed code.`  Information – Information is a defined as data organized and presented by someone. Information is used to make decisions.Information is a set of data transformed in such a way that it helps to reduce future uncertainty and, therefore, contributes to the decision-making process. Information is data transformed in a way that makes sense to the person who receives it. In other words, it has a real or perceived value for that person when they acts or takes decisions. Information, moreover, is data that have beeninterpreted and understood by the recipient of the message. The relationship between data andinformation is similar to that of raw materials and the finished product. Discussion:For data to be transformed into information, there must be an awareness of what the personreceiving the message will use it for, his/her training, position in the organisationand familiarity with the language and calculations used in the message.While all managers need information, they do not all need the same type of information.The kind of information required will depend on a range of factors: their level in thehierarchy, the work they are carrying out, confidentiality, urgency, etc. Indeed, theusefulness of information is a debatable point, and what for one person is information,for another is data. In an organisation, for example, when information is transferredfrom one organisational level to another its meaning may change significantly, suchthat at one hierarchical level it is regarded as significant information, whereas atanother level it is simply data. Information is the recipient’s knowledge and comprehension of data. Information reduces uncertainty and affords the recipient something he/she did not know previously.Information is one of many company resources, alongside capital, raw materialsand labour, since no company is viable without information. Regarding informationas a scarce resource obliges us to consider the issue of information economics,in other words, how to establish the necessary relationship between the value ofinformation and its cost.