Committee: around the world so have the effects

Committee: Economic and Financial Affairs CouncilTopic: Disaster Risk ReductionCountry: ArgentinaDelegate: Saniyya RiveraSchool: Montessori School of Northern VirginiaDelegation formally requests to be on the speaker’s listAs human populations have increased around the world so have the effects of natural disasters on those populations. This is because as our population grows, more and more people are forced to meet their fundamental needs in high risk, disaster-prone areas. During the San Juan earthquake in 1994, 60% of the fatalities were women.  That was because all the men got special training in swimming, rock climbing, and other useful skills that helped them escape. This is true for most disasters around the world. There was a cyclone in Bangladesh in 1991 and 90% of the fatalities were women. Now, countries are more protective of women. But in some places, women are still more affected.Argentina is vulnerable to many natural hazards but among the most destructive have been floods. The main cause of floods in Argentina is heavy rainfall. Another cause is climate change, but that isn’t as common in Argentina. Most floods affect food security. Their impact on food security has been varied. It went from moderate crop losses to localized effects. Some floods we can work hard enough to avoid, but some are unavoidable. We can’t stop it from raining, nor can we just dam up all the rivers in Argentina, or put water walls everywhere. That would be too expensive and cause major earthquakes and other disasters. Buenos Aires is one of the main flood-prone areas and that’s where most of the flood control projects need to be. Of course, Argentina knows that, so they have been doing some flood control projects there.Argentina has been planning a flood control project {building a dam} that will take place in the Buenos Aires province’s Salado River basin with the help of the Dutch government. The Salado River has been a spot for crisis and conflicts for decades. Argentina began this project in March of 2017 and has improved the lives of  95,000 residents in that area so far. However, while building dams solve flooding, it can also cause it. Damming a river can make the water have nowhere to go but up, causing a flood. Therefore, dams cannot be the permanent solution. And building dams are very expensive, Argentina had to save a lot of money and time to work on the dam in the Salado River. The president, Mauricio Macri, when he was inaugurated he told the public that only through foreign investment would the country finally pull itself out of the stagnating economic situation. He said, “By the end of the year, light would start to be seen at the end of the tunnel.” Macri cut export duties, subsidies, and price controls and predicted that this would open the door to at least, US$20 billion in foreign investment in 2016, rising to over US$100 billion by the end of his four-year term. Although, those predictions haven’t met with reality so far. US$58 billion investments via public-private partnerships have been confirmed between 2016-2019. Flood relief tunnels have been working and could still work. Argentina just did a big project involving building flood relief tunnels in the Maldonado River in Buenos Aires, making Argentinas risk rating go from at least 4.5, down to 2.3. That means Argentina just reduced their risk of disasters by quite a lot, but right now, Argentina is focused on dams so they haven’t built any more tunnels. Building more flood relief tunnels would be more productive and would help with reducing floods more than dams. Also, dams can cause earthquakes. The tunnels would have to be large and funnel-shaped and they would be expensive but not as expensive as dams and tunnels have a lower risk rating.Argentina could also add water filters into the tunnels so that the water’s next destination could be a clean water source, allowing the problem of no clean water only dirty water to be solved. It would cost some extra money but it would also solve another problem. In some way, having heavy rain with the tunnels and filters could be a good way to solve droughts. Argentina would have more water for whatever they needed. Of course, every solution causes other problems or more. But, since this one won’t cause as much damage as, say a dam, or a water wall, the tunnels with filters could be both a feasible and beneficial solution.Other countries such Bangladesh, India, or China could benefit from the tunnels as well as Argentina. Tokyo already has tunnels, so does Chicago. Even countries that don’t have a lot of flood problems could benefit from the tunnels just in case a storm with heavy rain occurred. References: