Chapter parts relate to each other. When

Chapter 1Learning is the process of gaining knowledge through studying and or experience. According to Wind Goodfried, “learning is the step-by-step process in which an individual experiences permanent, lasting changes in knowledge, behavior or ways in processing the world.” (2013)n.According to Bloom’s taxonomy, there are six steps in process of learning:Remembering entails recalling facts and basic concepts, not to be confused with rote-learning. Understanding is being able to classify and explain ideas and concepts. They are to grasp what they are learning,in order for them to apply it; using the information they have learned even after a period of time, not just for that one time. After the student is able to apply their knowledge about a subject, they can start analysing it. This means that they are able to break down their knowledge about the subject into separate parts and that they understand how these different parts relate to each other. When the student starts evaluating a subject, they can judge and criticize the subject and determine whether the given information is relevant and accurate. Finally students can start creating, which means they can produce new work, using their knowledge on the subject and putting together different elements. (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001)For example, when a student learns about The Abolition of Slavery for history, they first start memorizing small facts and dates. They will get tested on important events, like the slave trade in Europe and when they happened. After this they have to understand how and why these events happened, so they will understand why slavery got abolished. When they understand why something has occurred, the student can apply their knowledge by making a timeline of the different events, explaining why these events happened at the time they did. So the student will be able to explain why different countries implemented laws about slavery at different times. When the student starts evaluating their knowledge about history, they are able to take a stand and formulate their own opinion. So they will explain why they are for or against slavery. At last, the student will be able to write a book, for example, or create a play about slavery.In Psychology in Education, Woolfolk pointed out some new ideas on how to make in-class time more valuable; “Expert teachers established rules like: ‘Ask three, then me.’ Pupils have to consult three classmates before seeking help from the teacher. Expert teachers also spend time early in the year showing pupils how to help each other – how to ask questions and how to explain” (Weinstein & Mignano, 2003)”. We found this interesting, because this teaches students to ask for help and to explain a problem, but it also teaches their classmates to explain an assignment and these classmates might find out that they don’t understand the subject as well as they thought. The duties of a teacher:Monitor the progress of pupilsGet to know every studentEncourage pupilsPlanning/preparing lessonsPraise pupilsCorrect any misconceptions that may ariseSet homeworkMaking testsWe think the first three on the list are the most important, because focussing on the students would allow us to know their capabilities thus making them look forward to learning their lessons. The responsibilities we would like to develop as teachers are:Fluently and confidently speaking in front of the classBeing motivation for students so that they are more inclined to learnPlanning and preparing lessonsGreat organizational skillsWe realise that both of us need to work on our confidence in speaking in front of a class, as well as our organisational skills. Chapter 2SecondaryVocationalGoalsPreparing students for universityPreparing students for their work field of choiceOrganisationStudents sitting in classrooms, learning from books.First students follow a broad curriculum, in the later years they pick and choose subjects. Classrooms look like an actual workplace to prepare students for a job in the field. There are 4 different levels with their own job qualification. Target audienceStudents aged 12-18Students who have finished secondary educationVocational education is quite different from regular secondary education. The main reason that the two types of education are so different, is because both have a different goal and therefore a different target audience. In secondary education, the main goal is to prepare students for college or university, whereas vocational education gets students ready to work in the field of their choice. In order to prepare for university, students in secondary education learn from books and prove their knowledge by taking theoretical tests and exams. In the later years of secondary school, the students can choose the subjects they will need for the course they want to take in university. Students in vocational education, on the other hand, get prepared for working straight after school and therefore their education is more focused on specific jobs. They get taught in a more practical way and the classrooms look like an actual working environment of the field they choose to work in, as showed by Keith Ballard in Education in the Netherlands (Maris College) Den Haag, Netherlands Part 5. Besides going to school, the students will already start working, by taking a practical training. This training can take up 20-60 percent of their education, or more, depending on their level of education. Students will have a few theoretical subjects, like English, maths or calculus and Dutch. These are taught in a similar way to secondary education, the main difference being that these subjects are also targeted at their field of work. So for English, for example, their vocabulary tests are about the specific language and words used in that field.  The target audience for both types of education is a little different. Students at secondary education start after primary school, usually at the age of twelve or thirteen. They will continue until around the age of sixteen, seventeen or eighteen. If students graduate secondary school at the age of sixteen, they can go to vocational education, so these students start a little older. Students can continue their education after they turn eighteen, but this is not mandatory. As observed in our internship, many students don’t continue their course at vocational education straight away, because they don’t like the course or the way it’s taught, or they are simply not ready for it and they decide to work for a few years before continuing school. Therefore many students finish their vocational education at a later age. According to Wiggins and McTighe, found in Schooling by Design (2007), as an educator, we have the responsibility to provide the necessary skills and knowledge to our students. Those responsibilities include:Provide tasks and classroom assignmentsTime for reflection on material providedSuggestions on how to improve necessary skills Tips to develop professionallyPerformance managementGuidanceThe most important didactic duties of a teacher within both secondary and vocational education are:Teach basic concepts Make sure students stay productiveEnsure students learn the curriculuma clear presentation of lessonsEnsure students attain the essential attitude, skills and behaviourAchieve their educational objective. Currently we are both interns at ROC van Amsterdam. It is an MBO school, so it offers vocational training. Both of us finished havo in high school and Lotte was in VWO as well, for a few years. Therefore this was a good opportunity for us to see what vocational education is all about and compare it to the other types of education. Thus far Bitherdine prefers the vocational training simply because it incorporates both aspects, which are educating and preparing students for the job market. Some advantages are:PracticalityPrepares students for the real worldStudents are more motivated, since they get an actual feeling on what it would be like to work in their desired fieldStudents not only focus on getting good grades but also use the knowledge they get in their respected fields.Work experienceI feel that those in vocational training gain more and require more because they have to work and go to school. Their experience makes it easier to get jobs as well. For example, when i graduated high-school “Cum Laude”, it was difficult to get a job, regardless of how smart i was; employers wanted experience. Students who graduated from vocational schools did not have that issue.  Lotte thinks both types of education are equally important, depending on the students. As Bitherdine mentioned, it seems easier for students at vocational education to find a job, because they already have a few years of experience and they have done internships at places where they can often get the opportunity to keep working after they graduate. However, not all students are interested in these kinds of practical jobs and the level of education is not high enough for them, because they learn quicker or more easily than vocational students, so they will get bored because they do not get challenged. For these students it is more suitable to follow higher education because it will meet their way of learning. Personally I prefer being in HBO rather than MBO because I learn quite fast, so it is more challenging. While observing English classes at our internship, I noticed that most theory they were taught is what I already knew in the first years of secondary education, therefore I would not get challenged in these classes. Chapter 3Our mini lesson will be about reading, and how to pass the resits for our own reading exam. Some of our classmates failed the reading exam, so we took the most difficult part of the exam to explain again and give extra tips so everyone can take their resit with more confidence. All of the students have taken a reading exam before, so they already have some experience in taking the exam and they have quite a bit of pre-existing knowledge on the subject. Therefore we will not use a lot of scaffolding, but we will briefly repeat what they need to know and give extra tips by showing an example before having them do an exercise by themselves. Our lesson objective is very specific: our students will be able to complete a gap-text exercise by themselves, by applying and analyzing their knowledge of the English language and grammar, so that they are able to connect to pieces of text to each other.  At the end of the lesson we will check and discuss the answers to the exercise to see if everyone understands how to complete it. We think this goal is quite attainable, because students already have a lot of prior knowledge and they just need extra tips to stimulate their knowledge and give more confidence. By giving the students a few minutes to complete the exercises by themselves, we can see if they understand how to do it and we will get results immediately.We assume that most students will pay attention and follow our instructions orderly, because they all want to pass their resits. It is also a Monday morning, so the students will still be relaxed and focussed, more than on a Friday afternoon at 5:30 for example.Intro: 5 minutesExplain: 10 minutesDiy + ask questions: +/- 10 minutesCheck answers + ask questions: 5 minutes.Introduction: 5 minutesExplain what we’ll be teaching and whyTeacher: Bitherdinescript: “Good morning everyone, has everyone have a good weekend?” By asking the students about their weekend the teacher fulfills role of “host” according to the five roles of a teacher (Slooter, 2009). “We are Bitherdine and Lotte and we will be giving short lesson on how to pass a reading exam. You have all taken the reading test after period A. Some of you passed the exam, but some students also failed. The students who failed will be taking the resit soon, so we would like to help you pass the test this time. The students who have passed their last reading test might still want to improve their skills, because we all want to pass the CAE exams.  As you all know by now, a cambridge reading exam is built up from multiple texts with their own strategies. Today we will be focussing on paragraph matching, which is one of the hardest parts.”behaviour students: nice and easyExplanation: 10 minutesUse student’s prior knowledge to draw attention, explain subject. Teacher: Lotte (Bitherdine hands out exercises while getting started. Not during the introduction because it draws away the attention and it is not necessary for the introduction.)Script: Paragraph matching is, and will always be, a very difficult part. But if we got through it on the test, so will you! When you see a big gap text, it is important not to freak out, so if you’re not ready to do it yet, first do another text until you’ve calmed down a bit. Now you all have a gap text in front of you. What you first want to do is quickly scan the text, so you know where it’s going. This takes literally a few seconds but it helps a lot. Then you’ll start working on it, one paragraph at a time. For each gap, the last sentence before it and the first sentence after are the most important, so you want to read those and keep an eye on signal words. Does anyone know what signal words are?” Signal words give you an idea of how the next paragraph should fit the first one. Signal words show contrast, like but or however; addition, like firstly or moreover; cause and result, like due to or therefore; illustration, like for example or specifically; or clarification, like in other words. (write those on board) Underline any signal words in the sentences that connect to the gap. For the first gap, unfortunately we won’t find any signal words but for the second one you will, don’t worry. So now we’ll read the first and third paragraph quickly and focus on correspondingly the last and first sentence. The first paragraph is an intro, we don’t really know yet what exactly is going on, but we know that it’s about children on a farm. The second paragraph explains what kind of children they are and at which farm they are staying, so I am looking for a paragraph that talks about the children. Now we’ll look at the matching paragraphs and again we’re searching for signal words. First try to match the first sentence of a matching paragraph to the last sentence of the preceding paragraph, using the signal words. A talks about a similar sense of tranquility. Daniel, in the first paragraph is quite the opposite from tranquil so we’ll skip this one. B starts off with ‘along with this’ which is a signal phrase for addition, which doesn’t fit the first paragraph.C talks about an expansion which hasn’t been mentioned before. For D the first sentence could fit the preceding paragraph, but the rest of the paragraph does not really fit the second paragraph in the text, so this is not a great option. E is the best option so far. “However” shows a contrast which matches the preceding paragraph, because Daniel doesn’t want to feed the pigs, but Sofia does. It also says that Sofia is doing exactly as the children are told to do in the first paragraph. There is also a use of synonyms, which often tells you that you’re on the right track. The first paragraph talks about ‘piles’ while paragraph E says ‘small heaps’. Synonyms are most often found in the right answer. ‘The teenagers’ can now apply to both Sofia and Daniel, which makes sense. To check our answer we’ll quickly look at F and G. F doesn’t connect to the first paragraph at all. No money has been mentioned and neither has someone called ‘Fielden’. G Doesn’t quite connect either, because the first paragraph only talks about ‘two young people’, so ‘most of them’ doesn’t quite apply. Can anyone explain why D isn’t the answer? Does everyone understand this? (If only 1 or 2 students are struggling, take them apart while others are working. Otherwise try and explain problem)Now if there are no more questions, I would like you all to take 10 minutes to finish the exercises. (didactic) Preferably do it by yourself, but you can compare answers when you’re finished. We are here to answer any questions if you are struggling. After 10 minutes we will discuss the answer.Student behaviour: might be quite mixed, because some students have already passed their exam. Nonetheless is paragraph matching a difficult subject so even students who have passed might want to improve their skills for the CE exam later this year. Aids: hand-out exam exercise (page 40+41 of exam essentials practice tests book x9), white board marker. Self practise for students: 10 minutesBehaviour of students: They might start chatting together after a while, which is okay, as long as it’s about the subject and they’re not interrupting fellow students. If everyone finishes early and starts getting louder we’ll move on to the evaluation earlier.Checking answers: 5 minutesTeacher: BitherdineScript: Hopefully you’ve all finished the second question by now so it is time to discuss the answer. Which answer have you got? Does everyone agree? (Terminator)If not: ask student who got the right answer to explain why. Students already have prior knowledge concerning reading exams, so we would like to use their existing knowledge on the best way to pass the reading exam. According to Bloom’s Taxonomy “They are to grasp what they are learning, in order for them to apply it; using the information they have learned even after a period of time, not just for that one time. After the student is able to apply their knowledge about a subject, they can start analyzing it. This means that they are able to break down their knowledge about the subject into separate parts and that they understand how these different parts relate to each other.” (Woolfolk et al, 2012). And since they already have prior knowledge on the exams, the best approach would be without scaffolding.Since this is a short lesson, timing is everything. We must be able to inform the students within our time limit. We kept the explanation to ten minutes because we don’t want to lose the attention of the students. According to Florida Education Association it is best to “Limit lecture time to 15-20 minutes and give students two or three opportunities within the lecture period to answer questions or Think/Pair/Share” which is ideal for our mini lesson.We also wanted an interactive session which is why we also included an activity for them to do in order for us to discuss it.Bibliography:Woolfolk, Psychology in Education, 2012Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001, retrieved from https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/29569858/mary_forehand_discussion-blooms_taxonomy.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A=1511732531=gc61IG%2FKzKdKqykz%2F72mkfi6rk4%3D-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DBlooms_taxonomy.pdfhttp://www.jimwrightonline.com/php/interventionista/interventionista_intv_list.php?prob_type=off_task__inattentionUniversity, C. M. (n.d.). Eberly Center. Retrieved January 12, 2018, from https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/teach/priorknowledge.htmlhttp://www.ascd.org/publications/books/107018/chapters/What-Is-the-Teacher’s-Job-When-Teaching%C2%A2.aspx