Chapter the leg, a slight movement of the


Principles of Animation(pics?)

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

The principles are:

1. Timing

2. Ease In and Out (or Slow In and Out – EIO
or SIO)

3. Arcs

4. Anticipation

5. Exaggeration

6. Squash and Stretch

7. Secondary Action

8. Follow Through and Overlapping Action

9. Straight Ahead Action and Pose-To-Pose

10. Staging

11. Appeal

12. Personality


1. Timing


Timing determines
how fast or slow an object or a character will be shown moving. Accordingly,
the character can be made to seem alert, fast and active or slow, sleepy and

For example, if a character moves his head
fast, it might be seen as assertive, if slow, it might be seen as indecisive.


2. Movement into or out of a pose


This is how a character comes into or moves
out of a scene or a pose. This determines his acceleration, his speed of
movement, his resting, or his movement when he again starts to shift.


3. Arcs


Real actions all take place in an arc, not
in a linear path. It is preferable to keep movements like that even in
animation. This is so even for body movements.

For example – Movement of a ball through the


4. Anticipation


Movement in animation has three stages –
One, when the character comes into movement, or starts moving, then the actual
action and then the result of the action. Here, the first movement is the anticipation
part.  In some cases, anticipation is
needed physically, so that action appears smooth. For example, for throwing a
ball one has to first swing the arm backwards. The backwards motion is part of the
anticipation; the throw itself is the motion. Another example could be that of
a person beginning to move or to walk, there are preparations for that move
beforehand – the lifting of the leg, a slight movement of the body, etc. This
period prepares the viewers for the action that is to come.


5. Exaggeration


This is generally used to accent or stress
an action. It should never be used too much, but with care. First we need to
choose – what parts and what actions need to be highlighted or exaggerated. This
will make the animation seem more realistic and entertaining and it will seem
to have continuity. The benefit is that exaggerating something makes it
livelier, but it should be seen that it retains its reality and credibility.
For example, enhancing the size of an object to make it appear dominant, decreasing
the size of another to make it less dominant – here, care needs to be taken
that the relation between the two objects is not affected by this.


6. Squashing and Stretching


Squashing and stretching are ways of distorting
an object in such a way that it shows how rigid or how flexible an object is.
For example, a bouncy rubber ball hitting the ground will tend to flatten when
it ultimately hits the ground. One thing to be kept in mind is that no matter
how an object distorts, it should still retain its basic volume. The most
commonly seen usage of this in character animation is seen in body movements –
when a body is moving and the muscle contracts, it will squash and when
extended, it will elongate.


7. Secondary Action


Secondary action helps in creating interesting
and realistic images in animation. It should be used in a manner that it is
noticeable but does not overshadow the main action. For example, when a
character delivers his main lines that is the main action. These are the supplementary
actions that make his character believable, like the character moving his legs up
and down in agitation.


8. Follow Up and Overlapping Action


Follow up action is when something goes past
its resting point and then comes back to it again, like when throwing a ball,
you put your hand back, that’s anticipation; Follow Through is then the arm continuing
past the normal stopping point, going beyond it and then coming back.


Overlapping Action is an action that occurs
as a continuation of another action. For example when a running dog suddenly
comes to a stop and its ears still keep moving for a little while; this is an
example of overlapping action.



9. Straight-Ahead Action and Pose-To-Pose


There are 2 basic methods to creating
animation. Straight-ahead animation is one where the objects are drawn or set
up one frame at a time, processing according to the script. For example, the
animator works in a linear way, drawing the first frame of the animation, then
the second, and so on until the sequence is complete. In this, there is usually
one drawing or image per frame. This approach has more scope for creativity but
it is also the more difficult to make changes in this method.


The other approach is Pose-to-Pose
animation. Pose-to-Pose is created by drawing or setting up the key poses and
then drawing or creating the in between or connecting images. It is easier to change
the animation in this method. The key poses are drawn and then the motions in
between are generated from that. This is very useful when specific timing or
action has to be set up at specific points.


10. Staging


Staging is presenting an action or script item
so that it is easily understood. An action is staged so that it is understood;
a personality is staged so that it is recognizable; an expression so that it
can be seen; a mood so that it will affect the audience. In general, actions
are usually presented only one item at a time. If there is too much happening,
the audience will be unsure what to look at and the main action will be overshadowed.
For example if you’re staging a sad pose you may have the character hunched
over with his arms hanging at his sides. However, if you give him this big grin
on his face it will certainly not match with the rest of the pose.

Staging multiple characters is also an
important issue. Generally you want to ensure where the audience is focused at
within a shot. Background characters must

be animated such that they are still active,
but not so much that they take the viewer’s attention away from the main


11. Appeal


Appeal means anything that a person would
like to see in a character. This can be charm, design,

simplicity, visual appeal, communication or
magnetism. It can be created by correctly utilizing other principles such as
exaggeration in design, avoiding symmetry, using overlapping action,

etc. Weak or awkward design, shapes and
motion should be avoided. For example, an evil character might still have


12. Personality


The personality of the characters will
determine the success of an animation. This means that the animated creature
gains aliveness and becomes fit for the role. The character should be different,
but at the same time be familiar to the audience. Personality has a lot to do
with what is going on in the mind of the character, as well as the traits and
mannerisms of the character. All of these together will help to really bring
the character alive.


The above principles are the foundation upon
which good character animation lies. With practise, patience and perseverance
ones animation skills will improve.–vector-19904



In Animation, as also in
Films and Video productions, 24 individual frames make for one second of a
shot; in other words, one second of a shot is composed of 24 individual frames.
These individual or separate frames when projected at a speed of 24
frames/second give us the illusion of movement. At the speed of 24
frames/second, the movement perceived by our brains appears natural, reduce the
speed to, say, 12 frames/second and the movement will begin to look Jerky.
Let’s look a little more closely at Frame rate.

What is Frame Rate?

frame rate in video is the number of separate frames that are introduced to the
viewer in a particular time frame. Frame rates are often measured in frames per

the frame rate for a project involves understanding how the human eye and brain
perceive moving images. More frames will gives you the smoother animation and
less frames will gives you the jerky animation. (see the above example).

industries have different standards for frames per second or frame rates. In
cinema, 24 frames per second has been a prevailing standard, whereas in Video
production it is 25 Frames/second (as in India) or 30 frames/second (as in



Storyboards present the visual image
of what the viewer will be looking at on screen, whether it’s a television set,
a movie theatre screen or a computer monitor. These are shown in a format
called a “storyboard panel”.

 A storyboard panel is a rectangular shaped box on a
piece of paper. The dimensions of this box are usually around 4″ wide x
3″ high for television. There are usually 3 panels to an 8 1/2″
x 11″ page. The size and shape of the panel can vary depending on
what is called the “aspect ratio”. This is the size of the width to
the height. The television aspect ratio is 1:1.33 – 1 units high by 1.33
units wide (also known as 3:4). Standard Widescreen is 1:1.85, 70mm film
is 1:2.2, and Anamorphic Wide screen in 35mm Panavision is 1:2.35.

A storyboard artist usually works with a set of pre-printed
storyboard pages such as the ones shown here.

The storyboard artist draws the image in the box and then fills in
the appropriate information in the other boxes on the page.

Each image area represents what will eventually be shown on the
screen. Therefore the storyboard artist needs to keep the information clear and
understandable to the viewer at all times.

Answer the following Questions:

Q1. Name
the 12 Principals of Animation?

Explain what is meant by Timing in Animation?

Explain what is meant by Exaggeration in Animation?

Q4. What
is meant by Squashing and Stretching in Animation?

Explain the principal of Personality?

Q6. What
is meant by Frame-rate?

Q7. What is meant by frame resolution?

Q8. Which aspect ratio we used for
television industry?


Chapter 1




is Storyboard:

A storyboard is a
graphic blue-print of the film in the form of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence.

In other words, a storyboard is an illustrated
outline of the shots that make up an Animation /Feature film. When you set out
to make a movie, the more planning ahead you can do, the better. Figuring out
exactly what you’ll be doing during a shoot saves your crew time and labor, and
saves you, the producer and/or director, from cost overruns and production

Every animation should have a storyboard. Like the script, it’s a cheap
and easy way to make changes and refine the story before production begins.




story is the key and the single most important element of the storyboard. When the
story is created sequentially on a storyboard, the creator can visually see if
the story makes sense, is complete or is missing in key information. A storyboard
also helps the creator organize and insert key details and points from the
story in a logical order.


storyboard also contains the characters in the story which are important to any
storyboard. When creating a storyboard, most creators use pen or pencil and are
not concerned with making the characters look good in order to save time. Some
people even use stick figures instead of drawing complete characters. The
storyboard illustrates the actions of the characters, such as the way they are
moving or what they are doing, deciding their progression along the story.


is also an important element of a storyboard. A storyboard not only shows the
characters in the story, but also shows what the characters are saying. This
interaction between the characters is called dialogue. It can also illustrate
the tone of voice the characters use, such as the loudness of the words, or
specific types of feelings that words can produce, such as anger, sarcasm or


Time Frame

frame is another element of storyboard; it contains notes about time frames,
such as how much time will be used in a specific scene, or how much time passes
between frames. This element of a storyboard helps writers narrow down a story
to a specific duration of time.

Camera Details

The storyboard shows where the camera should be
positioned and which frames are close-up shots or shots with a moving camera. When
to zoom-in, when to zoom out, is also conveyed through this.


7 Elements Help Direct a Storyboard Artist