Cellphones 2017). Therefore, the ability to meet theprojected

Cellphones have evolved over the years, from having only voice communicationmeans to the current smartphones with the ability to connect to the internet to achievenumerous functions/capabilities (e.g. retrieving email, mobile games, google maps,etc.) and this is not limited to smartphones as tablets and iPads are two examples ofother mobile devices that can use data.The ever-growing number of mobile devices with data capabilities has shown to causea surge in mobile data traffic volume. Cisco visual networking index has shownmobile data traffic doubled during 2010 to 2011 (Rodriguez, 2015) and industryestimates that mobile data traffic will continue to grow. By 2020, cellular networksmay have to deliver approximately 100 to 1000 times the capacity of current cellularnetwork systems (Vannithamby and Talwar, 2017). Therefore, the ability to meet theprojected mobile traffic demand and the wide range of requirements (e.g. low latencyand high reliability for automobile industries, high bandwidth, fast big dataprocessing speed for smart cities,etc.) for different industry sectors is one of thepurpose that 5G needs to address.To achieve these requirements, new features must be implemented, and this isreferred to as the LTE Evolution (LTE-Advanced Pro). Improvements in the spectralefficiency, higher traffic density, cmWave and mmWave transmission capabilities,massive connectivity, integration of LTE and 5G radio access technology (RAT) aresome of the features that LTE-Advanced Pro can offer. To have improvements incapacity, user data rate, mobility and spectral efficiency, technologies like MassiveMulti-Input Multi-output (MIMO) antennas, multilayer UL (Uplink) MIMO are somewhich can be implemented and as for data rate with better interference mitigation,methods such as better beam coordination methods can be applied. In 5Grequirements, one of the main requirement that has to be met is a reduction in thelatency and what 5G is focusing on is to reduce the current transmission time interval(TTI) to the first slot – which is the first 7 OFDM symbols, for any transmission(Badic, B., Drewes, C., Karls, I., & Mück, M, 2016). Having localized contents andby employing methods such as local routing, caching, data traffic offloading canreduce the latency and help improve reliability (Osseiran, A., Monserrat, J. F., &Marsch, P, 2016).One solution that 5G offers which can help reduce the increasing mobile data trafficis better spectrum management where there are some approaches to make moreavailable spectrum for users. 5G systems will have frequency bands that comprisesof not only the current frequency range of below 6 GHz but also the cmWave andJustin See Jian Ting 1W17CG98-0mmWave spectrum that are above 10 GHz and they are classified as potentialbandwidths that can be made for mobile applications. Sharing of existing spectrumof wireless bands below 6 GHz can open more availability in the traditional wirelessbands, an example of spectrum sharing technologies is the Licensed Shared Accessin 2.3-2.4 GHz in Europe (Badic, B., Drewes, C., Karls, I., & Mück, M, 2016).Furthermore, the use of small cells has benefits which if quantified is twice of whatmacro base stations have to offer as smaller cells will accommodate a smaller numberof user where available resources are distributed across these users which are a lotlesser as compared to macro base stations thus allowing more capacity to be allocatedfor each user. In addition, denser small cell deployment allows users to be closer tothe base station antenna resulting in better signal propagation and with lesserpropagation losses, better spectral efficient transmission mode can be implementedwhich will improve the Quality of service (QoS) of users (Badic, B., Drewes, C.,Karls, I., & Mück, M, 2016).