Catalysts are substances that speed up a chemical reaction without being consumed in the reaction, making it reusable. Enzymes are biological catalysts, and these molecules help to increase the rate of a given chemical reaction. With a catalyzed reaction, a specific molecule called the substrate binds to the enzyme in a spot specifically designed for the molecule called the active site. The enzyme then converts the substrate into product(s) and that gets released. Because the enzyme is not consumed in the process, it can bind to another substrate and repeat the catalysis. However, changes to an enzyme’s active site will affect enzyme activity and its ability to catalyze efficiently. A common cause for lowered enzyme activity is changes in temperature and pH, which both lead to denaturation where the biological structure is lost. Enzymes can also be affected by the presence of inhibitors. Inhibitors either bind to the active site directly, stopping the substrate from entering the active site so that the chemical reaction is unable to proceed – these are known as competitive inhibitors. Non-competitive inhibitors, on the other hand, bind to an allosteric site, a separate location on the enzyme which prevents substrate binding, and in doing so lowering the maximum rate of reaction.Copper peroxide (CuSO4) is an example of a non-competitive inhibitor for the avocado catalase (1%), which has no structural similarity to the substrate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The inhibitor will bind to an allosteric site of the catalase, altering the enzyme’s shape, which stops hydrogen peroxide from binding with the catalase and this reduces the maximum rate of enzyme activity. Because this is a non-competitive inhibition, increasing the concentration of the substrate H2O2 will not have any effect on the catalysis rate.Source 2 Catalase is an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of H2O2 decomposing into H2O + O2. Catalase is commonly found in organisms that live in the presence of oxygen, and acts as an antioxidant by protecting cells and tissues from peroxide harm. In mammals, catalase is primarily found in the liver. (Britannica).Source 3 Copper sulfate is an inorganic compound that combines sulfur with copper, used to kill bacteria, algae, plants, and fungi. Copper sulfate is regularly used in US pesticide products (NPIC).Source 4 Hydrogen peroxide is an antiseptic, oxidizer and bleaching agent. As an antiseptic, it is used on the skin to prevent infections; oxygen is released when applied to the affected area, creating foam that helps remove dead skin and cleans the area (WebMD).