Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a
class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery disease (CAD)
such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known
as a heart attack).1
diseases account for more deaths worldwide than any other disease. Together they
resulted in 17.9 million deaths (32.1%) in 2015, up from 12.3 million (25.8%)
Overweight and obesity are major risk
factors for a number of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases.
other risk factors includes hypertension, dyslipidaemia and impaired glucose
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that acts as a
steroid hormone. it has been
traditionally recognized as a vitamin which is essential for bone–mineral
health. In the past two decades, numerous experimental and observational studies
have highlighted the role of vitamin D in immunity, metabolic syndrome (obesity
and diabetes), cancers, renal disease, memory, and neurological dysfunction.4
cross-sectional and case–control studies have suggested a potential role of
25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), the major circulating form of vitamin D, in risk
reduction of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) 5
underlying biological causes are not fully understood, the association of
25-OH-D with cardiovascular pathology is speculated to be driven by various
mechanisms: apart from a potential direct impact on cardiomyocytes and
myocardial diseases, it has been suggested that 25-OH-D indirectly modifies CVD
risk by its association with cardiovascularrisk factors like obesity, diabetes,
hypertension, smoking, or cholesterol level.
However, vitamin D physiology may differ
between subjects with obesity and adults with normal weight.
Furthermore, individuals with obesity
require higher doses of vitamin D in order to improve their vitamin D status
compared to subjects with normal weight 6
Association between vitamin D status and cardiometabolic profile improvement in
adults with obesity will be useful public
health initiatives in using vitamin D supplementation to improve
cardiovascular risk among this rapidly increasing population group.