Blood main proteins are albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen.

Blood transports gases, nutrients, hormones and glucose and so on to our body. Likewise, blood helps the physical structure to determine temperature. The volume of blood is: for males is 2 to 6 liters for females is 4 to 5 liters. Our line of descent could be split into three sections, which are plasma, Buffy coat, and red blood cells. Plasma accounts for about 55 percent of whole blood for men, while for women is 58 per cent, and it is mainly water. Buffy coats accounts less than 1 percent of our ancestry, and consists of platelets, and white blood cells. Blood circulation is powered by the pumping activity of the nitty-gritty.

For the composition of blood: blood contains cellar and liquid ingredients. Line is also a specialized connective tissue.

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Hematocrit are used to measure the ratio of the volume occupied by packed red blood cells to the volume of the whole blood. Hematocrit is measured of % RBC. For males, the hematocrit is about 47%; for females is 42 percent.

Blood plasma is straw-colored, the sticky fluid portion of line. Complete 90 percent of blood plasma is water. Blood plasma contains over 100 varieties of particles such as Ions (Na+, Cl-), nutrients such as sugars, amino acids, lipids, wastes, and proteins. The three main proteins are albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen.

In origin, the formed elements are blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets; and staining of blood cells, including acidic dye and basic dye. The acidic dye is easing, which means stains pink; basic dye is methylene blue, which means stains blue and violet.

Erythrocytes transports oxygen, and its diameter are about 7.5 um. Erythrocytes are also the most numerous of the organized elements. For females, the volume of Erythrocytes is around 4.3 to 5.2 million cells per cubic mm. For males, the volume is about 5.2 to 5.8 million cells per cubic mm.

Red blood cells have no organelles or nuclei, and they are the ideal measuring instrument for calculating sizes of nearby structures.

Each O2 molecule bears an iron molecule, and that’s why the iron elements give blood its red color.

Red blood cells pick up O2 at lung capillaries, and release O2 across other tissue capillaries.

The hematocrit could determine our health. For object lesson, for normal people, the hematocrit is about 45 percent, while for people who have anemia, the hematocrit is only 30 percent. For the great unwashed who have polycythemia, the hematocrit is about 70 percent. For people how have dehydration, the plasma is less than the normal and the packed cell volume is over 70 percent.

White cell, also called white blood cells (WBCs). WBCs protects the body from infectious microorganisms, and function outside the bloodstream in loose connective tissues. Diapedesis refers to the passage of blood cells through the enraptured wall of a blood vessel into the surrounding tissues, so diapedesis also indicates that circulating leukocytes leave the capillaries. WBCs originated in bone marrow of human bodies.

There are II types of white blood cells—they are granulocytes, and agranulocytes.

Of the two types of leukocytes, due their different conditions, they can also be split up into different sections. For example, granulocytes include neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil. Agranulocytes including monarchy, and lymphocyte.

The neutrophil has the highest distribution percentages, which is approximately 60 to 70 percent in the WBC count. The leukocyte concentration is approximately 7 million per cubic centimeter of blood.







Human beings need immunity to fight against disease. To realize the concept of the immune system of our bodies, we could compare our system to “The War of The World”, a book talk about how human beings fight against the foreigners. The reason why we should contend against the extraterrestrial beings is because they are different from us, and we have different genes or DNA. Therefore, we should not have these alien creatures occupy our environment.

For human beings, we possess two forms of immune systems. The first is non-specific response to inflammation. The non-specific response, inflammation protects people against all antigens such as bacteria. Our bodies could easily distinguish the things that not belong to us, then we have to take these matters out of our physical structures. So, for the non-specific response, inflammation, the foremost step is bacterial invasion or tissue impairment. In fact, if we do not have our immune system, people will die of infection—that is a serious thing need to be counted.

When bacteria invade our bodies, or tissues get damaged, our body will attempt to protect the alien things. Therefore, the histamine would be freed by our cellular telephones. This is the first barriers for non-specific response inflammation. After the release of histamine, the local arteriolar will react to having vasodilation. After vasodilation, the stock will be increased and then be driven home to injured tissues. Then the crucial plasma proteins would be increased, such as clotting factors, in tissue.

Another response caused by bacterial invasion or tissue damage is that: after histamine released by our cells, the local capillary permeability will be increased, and the local fluid will be collected. In the end, the responses result in the increase in phagocytes in tissue.

At last, the inflammation will end by the defense against foreign invaders, and tissue would be restored.

Inflammation means to get more temperature, such as feeling hot, showing redness, swelling and pain, and we will have more blood to the areas that needs to be protected.

The leukocytes play the central character in the innate non-specific answer. From the final lecture, we have discovered that there are dissimilar types of white blood cells, and they serve as the creature to defend against alien intrusion. For example, neutrophil is the most abundant type of white blood cells in our bodies, and they constitute an indispensable component of the natural immune system. Neutrophils always the foremost one to respond to inflammation by migrating towards the site of the damaged tissues. Mostly, they migrate through the blood vessels.

The second kinds of immune systems are the adaptable and specific acquired immunity. For lesson, later on people get a disease and cured it by ourselves later, we will own the immunity to defend against the similar disease in the hereafter.

For object lesson, we have B cells and T cells in our bodies. B cells function as the antibody-mediated immune response, while T cells function as the cellular phone-mediated immune reaction. T cells could identify the foreign invaders accurately and target them. B cells also take on an important part in our immune system by developing antibodies. B cells come from bone marrow, and they could not identify or target the specific foreign invaders.

There are dissimilar cases of T cells, such as Helper T cells, and regulatory T cells.

The B cell antibody mediated specific response is to accept the foreign invaders and then defeat them. B cells do not sustain the ability to memorize the antigens.

T cells presents T-cell receptor on the cell surface, so T cells could specifically and quickly react to alien invaders.




For our digestive system, the organs could be split into two groups—one is alimentary canal, the other is accessory digest organs. The alimentary canal include mouth, pharynx, esophagus; stomach, small bowel, and large bowel. The accessory digestive organs include teeth, tongue, gall bladder, salivary glands, liver and pancreas. Accessory organs are linked to the alimentary canal by ducts. Our accessory organs will produce secretion, and secretions contribute to breakdown foodstuffs.

In the image of the alimentary canal and accessory digestive organs, we could determine that the salivary glands include parotid gland, sublingual gland, submandibular gland. Large intestine includes transverse colon, descending colon, and ascending colon and hence along.

Our digestive system is likewise checked by the cerebral cortex, which give signals such as hunger to remind us to consume food. Then through the digestive system, we finally digest the nutrients from the nutrients.

The salivary glands could produce saliva. Organs and tissues which are involved in the activities of salivary glands, including tongue, teeth, frenulum of town, mylohyoid and so along.

The salivary glands are also compound tubuloalveolar glands. It can be split into three sections, including parotid glands, submandibular glands, and sublingual glands. Parotid glands, including parotid duct, which is parallel to the zygomatic arch, and it contains only serous cells. Submandibular glands lie on the medial surface of mandible. Sublingual glands lie on floor of the oral cavity, which contains primary mucous cells.

Our teeth are important to break down food. There are dissimilar cases of teeth such as incisor, canine and molars.

When we swallow things, our tissues and organs function together. For example, swallowing center inhibits the respiratory center in the brain stem. Elevation of uvula prevents food from entering nasal passages, Position of ton prevents food from re-entering mouth, and epiglottis is pressed down over the closed glottis as an ancillary mechanism to prevent food from getting into the air passages.

The histology of alimentary canal focuses on the mucosa, submucosa, and serosa. From the longitudinal and cross-sectional views through the small intestine, we could see structures such as intrinsic nerve plexuses, mucosa which include epithelium.

In our stomach, we could see esophagus, muscularis externa, fondues, serosa, lumen, range of mucus and thus along.

The duodenum is the beginning part of the small bowel in our digest system. The duodenum is a hollow tube, which with the duodenal bulb and ends of the suspensory muscle of duodenum. The duodenum functions to bread own food in the small intestine by using enzymes. The digestive enzymes included in the duodenum include lipase and amylase and then along.

The pancreas has an exocrine function. For example, acinar in the pancreas make, store, and secrete pancreatic enzymes. Enzymes are activated in the duodenum. The pancreas also has endocrine function, which could produce inulin and glucagon, and regulates blood sugar. So pancreas is a key organs for diabetes.

In the microscopic anatomy of the liver, the hepatocyte is the functional cells of the liver. The portal triad composed of bile duct tributary, branch of the hepatic portal vein, branch of the hepatic artery. Kupffer cells could destroy bacteria.

From the complete form of large intestine, we could see structures such as the right colic flexure, transverse colon, superior mesenteric artery, cecum, vermiform appendix and then along. The large intestine, also known as the large intestine or colon. In the large intestine, water can be assimilated while the dissipation would be eventually removed by defecation.




External respiration refers to the procedure that people inspire the air from the outside environment and then the oxygen from the air would be transported to our tissues, cells and then carry out the carbon dioxide. The pace of the external respiration is, first of all, ventilation or gas will be replaced between the air and air sacs in our lungs. Then, the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the gentle wind in the air sacs and the line of descent in the pulmonary capillaries will be replaced. Then, the ancestry of our bodies will transport the oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the tissues. The final step is the interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the line of descent in the systemic capillaries and the tissues. In the lecture on cardiovascular system, we have learned how organs and tissues produces carbon dioxide and take oxygen though veils.

The respiratory system includes many tissues and organs such as the nasal passages, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, cartilaginous ring, right bronchus, and bronchiole. For instance, we will use our noses to let the air in and then the air will come through the mouth, pharynx and finally to our lungs and cells.

Our vocal folds are composed of two infoldings of mucous tissue layer, from back to front, across the larynx. The vibrate could modulate the flow of air. For example, when we breathe and vibrate to sing or speak, the vocal folds open.

In our lungs, the alveolar cells and other cadres of our bodies work together to send oxygen and exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. For example, pulmonary capillary is close to the alveolus, which is only approximately 0.5 um.

Each alveolus is surrounded by numerous capillaries. Close to the pulmonary capillary and alveolus, the interstitial fluid helps them to replace oxygen and carbon dioxide. There are type I alveolar cell, Type II alveolar cell, alveolar fluid lining with pulmonary surfactant, alveolar macrophage on alveolus.

Type I cells are fragile, and the walls of the air sacs are also fragile. As a result, oxygen and carbon dioxide could be exchanged by getting in and out of the walls. The collagen fibers are fixed, but it permits the expansion and contraction of our lungs when we are taking a breather.

Type II cells contain lamellar bodies, and they contribute to lower the surface tension of alveolar.

A pleura is a tissue layer which forms a two-layered membrane pleural sac.

Pressure gradients determine the process of breathing. The press of our lungs, known as intra-alveolar pressure, is around 760 mm Hg. The force per unit area of pleural sac, known as the intrapleural pressure, is around 756 mm Hg. The atmospheric pressure is approximately 760 mm Hg. Hence, we need power or energy to see to it that we could breathe in the air from the outside air.

For the inspiration, we need muscle to ensure the process. The muscles which are involved in inspiration include external intercostal muscles and diaphragm. Before inspiration, the external intercostal muscles as well as the diaphragm are relaxed. During the inspiration, the external intercostal muscles and diaphragm are contracted.

The exhalation could be divided into passive expiration and active expiration. Passive expiration refers to the return of diaphragm, ribs, and sternum to resting position on the relaxation of inspiratory muscles restores thoracic cavity to perspiratory size. In the active expiration refers to the construction of abdominal muscles causes the diaphragm to be pressed upward, further cutting the vertical dimension of thoracic cavity.

A spirometer is an apparatus for measuring the intensity of air breathed in and gone by the lungs. After people inspire air and then be required to expire them out through the mouth into the apparatus. From the recording paper, we could determine the mass of air that our lungs can inspire and pass.

The normal reading from a spirometer could be read from the data, such as the high volume of aviation in the lungs, measure by ml, and the lowest volume of aviation in the lungs. Then some indicators of our lung volumes could be taken such as total lung capacity (TLC), which refers to the volume in the lungs at maximal inflation. It is the sum of VC and RV. Tidal volume (TV), which refers to the mass of air moved into or out of the lungs during quiet respiration. Vital capacity (VC), which brings up to the mass of air breathed out after the deep aspiration. Residual volume (RV) refers to the mass of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal expiration.

From the lung volumes, we could identify some lung diseases. For example, the restrictive diseases refer to that the lung volumes are decreased. The cause of the restrictive diseases could be the weak respiratory muscles.

Dead space refers to the situation that some air could not be able to take part in air exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. For example, after we inhale some air, and when we try to expire them out, some of them rains in the airways. In fact, in our bodies, we have some “dead space”, so only a part of air we inspire can take part in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

We have three breathing patterns, and they are quiet breathing at rest, deep and slow breathing, shallow and rapid breathing. Through the functions of different types of breathing patterns, we could learn the ventilation and perfusion ratio to assess the effectiveness of the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Ventilation and perfusion ratio is measured by the amount of air reaching the alveoli in one minute to the amount of blood reaching the alveoli in one minute. In most cases, our blood flow and airflow will help with the balance between the ventilation. However, the imbalance of the ventilation and perfusion will result in some health problems. For example, a lower ventilation and perfusion ratio will lead to the damage of lungs. A higher ventilation and perfusion ratio will lead to diseases such as bronchitis and so on.

Hemoglobin is the main element which takes the responsibility to transport oxygen. Hemoglobin contains iron and it exists in red blood cells. When alveolar pressure is equal to the blood pressure, the oxygen will not move. When the alveolar pressure is higher than the blood pressure, the oxygen will go into the hemoglobin and become partially saturated hemoglobin molecule. Finally, after the pressures keep balanced in the end, the hemoglobin becomes fully saturated hemoglobin molecule and then the hemoglobin starts transport oxygen throughout our bodies, issues, organs and cells.