Author(s) on properties and microstructure of high

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Title of article

nano-additive(s)

            Main results

S. Ghosh et al.
96

2007

improvement of thermal characteristics of refractory castable by
addition of gel-route spinel nanoparticles

spinel

Castable-containing spinel with excess alumina powder was found
to have the best combination of bulk density, apparent porosity, and hot
modulus of rupture

S. Otroj et al. 97

2008

behavior of alumina-spinel self-flowing castables with
Nano-alumina particles addition

alumina

By use of 1.5
wt.% Nano-alumina contents in the castable composition, the alumina-spinel
self-flowing castable with adequate working time and very high mechanical
strength can be obtained

W. Zhanmin et al.
98

2008

effect of
Nano-Al2O3 addition on the properties of Al2O3-SiC-C
castables

alumina

slag penetration resistance is enhanced by 1.0%nano-Al2O3
addition

M. Amin et al. 100

2009

the effect of nano-sized carbon black on the physical an
thermo-mechanical properties of Al2O3–SiC–SiO2–C
composite

carbon black

Nano-sized carbon black addition improved the relative heat
resistance and oxidation resistance of composites

G. Mingliang et al. 101

2009

effect of
nano-calcium carbonate addition on properties of corundum castable

calcium
carbonate

after thermal
treatment at 1000, 1500    and 1600 ?,the apparent
porosity increases gradually while the bulk density, CCS and MOR decrease
simultaneously

S. Badiee et al. 102

2009

non-cement refractory castables containing nano-silica:
performance, microstructure, properties

silica

By increasing
of firing temperature up to 1000°C, porosity and pore sizes of castable tend
to decrease.

S. Otroj et al. 104

2010

the effect of nano-size additives on the electrical conductivity
of matrix suspension and properties of self-flowing low-cement high alumina
refractory castables

 

The best self-flow, sufficient working time and adequate
mechanical strength in the castables are obtained with 0.08 wt. % FS 20

S.Otroj et al. 106

2011

microstructure and phase evolution of alumina–spinel self-flow in
refractory castables containing nano-alumina particles

alumina

As a result of using nanometer-sized alumina particles with high
surface area, the solid phase sintering of the nano-sized particles and CA6
formation can occur at lower temperatures

 

Table 1, Published papers in monolithic refractories field
by application of nanotechnology (since 2007 -2018)

S. Badiee et al. 109

2011

effect of nano-titania addition on
the properties of high-alumina low-cement self-flowing refractory castables

titania

With increase
of nano-titania particles in castable composition, the self-flow value and
working time tend to decrease.

H. Yaghoubi et al. 110

2012

influence of nano silica on properties and microstructure of high
alumina ultra-low cement refractory castables

silica

It’s concluded that the castables
containing the optimum amount of silica sol shows remarkable increase in both
castable fluidity and mechanical
strength in dried and sintered state

L. Zhigang et al. 111

2012

effect of
nano calcium carbonate on properties of corundum-spinel castables

calcium
carbonate

after treating at 800-1 400 ?; adding nano calcium carbonate obviously improves the thermal
shock resistance of the castables, and has little influence on corrosion
resistance to high basicity slag.

N.M .Khalil et al. 112

2012

improvement of
mullite and magnesia-based refractory castables through addition of
nano-spinel powder
 

spinel

The castable sample mix containing       10 wt.% nano-MA spinel powder was
chosen as an optimum composition according to its good sintering, mechanical
as well as refractory properties

S. Mukhopadhyay et
al. 115

2012

nanostructured cementitious sol gel coating on graphite for
application in monolithic refractory composites

 

Green bulk density of castable cubes has been determined to
corroborate the better performance of the graphite coated with calcium
aluminate

E.Y. Sako et
al. 116

2012

how effective is the addition of nanoscaled particles to
alumina–magnesia refractory castables

Alumina
magnesia

Although the addition of a nanoalumina and nanomagnesia mixture
ensured the best results regarding to the expansive behavior,
thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical properties, its performance was only
slightly superior to the castable containing micrometric alumina and magnesia
particles

C. Gogtas et al. 118

2012

Development of Nano-ZrO2 reinforced self-flowing low
and ultra low cement refractory castables

Zirconia

Nano-ZrO2 improves the flexural strength by 20% but it
does not have an important effect on the KIC.
 

S. Mukhopadhyay et
al. 124

2013

Nano-scale calcium aluminate coated graphite for improved performance
of alumina based monolithic refractory composite

calcium aluminate

Nano-coating considerably improved
matrix-aggregate bonding. Less porous simulated matrix upgraded slag
resistance.

N. Farzadnia et
al. 125

2013

characterization of high strength mortars with nano alumina at
elevated temperatures

alumina

An increase in the relative elastic modulus, higher energy
absorption and lower permeability were also observed when 1% nano alumina was
added.

S. Dutta et
al. 126

2014

significant improvement of refractoriness of Al2O3–C
castables containing calcium aluminate nano-coatings on graphite

calcium aluminate

The sol–gel coating overcomes the pitfalls of including uncoated
graphite’s in castables and should be explored for commercial utilization.

S. Otroj et al. 128

2015

impact of Nano–Cr2 O3
addition on the properties of aluminouscements
containing spinel

chrome

The slag resistance of refractory castables containing prepared
cements is improved due to increasing of spinel and decreasing of C12A7
amount in the cement composition.       

C. Gogtas et al. 132

2016

Effect of Nano-YSZ and Nano-ZrO2 additions on the
strength and toughness behavior of self-flowing alumina castables

YSZ
ZrO2

It is found that the addition of 3 wt% nano-ZrO2
improves the MOR of self-flowing castables (SFCs) by 20% and 50% matrix and
binding systems respectively. Also, 
the effect of nano-YSZ in promoting toughness is significantly reduced
or eliminated due to the presence of high porosity and internal flaws in the
SFCs

Salman Ghasemi-Kahrizsangi et al

2017

The influence of
Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles addition on the microstructure
and properties of bauxite self–flowing low-cement castables

alumina

The used of Al2O3 nanoparticles let to
formation of the platy and needle crystalline phases such as hibonite (CaO·6Al2O3), CaO·2Al2O3,
and mullite (3Al2O3·2SiO2)
inside the grain boundaries of the bauxite particles