An by Linda Hutcherson and “The theory and

An adaptation is the amended version of a text, which has adapted for production on stage or filming from a literary text. A common use of adaptation is the use of a novel to set the foundation of a film, for example Fight Club (Palahniuk 1996), Harry Potter (J.K Rowling 1997-2007). Nearly every film that has been produced has been adapted from a literary format, as Mazdon explained “Since the early days of its cinematic production Hollywood has adapted, copied, plagiarised, and been inspired by other works” (Mazdon, 2000: 2). There are many processes of adaptations. There are many processes  of adaptations and I will explore theories, such as “The theory of adaptation” by Linda Hutcherson and “The theory and practice of adaptation” by Robert Stam and will also look to see if adaptations do include remakes, reboots and sequels. Remakes, reboots and sequels are also adaptations. Remakes are generally used in reference to a movie which uses an earlier movie as the main source material. For example in 1998, Gus Van Sant produced an almost shot- for- shot remake of Alfred Hitchcock’s 1960 film Psycho.This is a remake because Van Sant kept everything the same to the original, by making sure the characters resemble to original cast and also kept the shots and script the same to the 1960’s version. There also reboots, which sound the same as remakes, however there is a difference between the two. A reboot means to discard the storyline from the previous film and to establish the series, to recreate the characters, timeline and background from the beginning. Different forms of media can be rebooted, such as comic books, tv series, video games and films. A prime example for a reboot is the Batman series (2005-2012), being one of the most popular superheroes.”Reboot-as-narrative process ‘suggest not only a restarting, but also that something was no longer viable or had gone wrong enough to require such an extreme measure’ (Wolf, 2012: 380)”.The franchise is constantly rebooting to make the text relevant with younger audiences. Batman was written first in 1939, 80 years later there have been 8 movies, with 4 different actors portraying Batman.Christopher Nolan,rebooted the Batman franchise, he made 3 films for the franchise with Christian Bale and Heath Ledger. Nolan said “I think audiences get too comfortable and familiar in today’s movies. They believe everything they’re hearing and seeing. I like to shake that up”. It had been 10 years since the last one Batman film was released before Nolan remade it. Batman heavily relies on technology and with technology improving vastly since the last film, Nolan saw this as the perfect time to reboot the film.Nolan removed pre-existing ideas inside the audience’s mind. “I like what Christopher Nolan did with Batman.I think Tim Burton is an amazing director, but I think that Christopher Nolan reinvented, to a degree, the superhero genre. Heath Ledger’s portrayal made people forget about Jack Nicholson. The new Batmobile made me forget about the old Batmobile … that’s the way we’re approaching Nightmare” (quoted in McCabe 2010:36).  He successfully produced 3 of the best Batman films of all time.It has become apparent that fidelity has become an issue from comic book to film adaptations rather than novel to film adaptations. This is because in comic books, the mise en scene that has not been created by the readers imagination, it is something visible that they see on the page itself. The comic book drawings connote the setting, character appearance and body language. That being the case, fidelity does become a more apparent issue in comic book adaptations rather than novel adaptations due to the visual source.For example when Burton’s “Batman” was released, many comic book readers objected the film with Michael Keaton’s performance because he didn’t match the character in the comic books. However, when George Clooney brought Bruce Wayne to life in “Batman & Robin”, the public were happy with the performance because Clooney was thought to be handsome enough to play the character. Some readers argued that Clooney having critical acclaim as Batman, it is because “Batman & Robin” was a different approach to the Batman series, it was not unfaithful to its source, it was an adaptation made out of context.A sequel is to continue the story and develop the characters and storyline of the earlier source. Batman again can be used as an example, as the directors and screenwriters made multiple films to extend the story and create the character development. The process of adapting can be a lengthy process, with adapters finding literary sources that are worth adapting to make money and also entertain their audiences. It is a safe option for directors because they already have an established fan base to make content for.There are many pros and cons when it comes to adaptations. These may include; creating content for passive audiences, in today’s world many people have become disinterested in reading and often read the novels after gaining an interest by the adaptation. Movies that originate from books are often said to be the greatest, this can be said for Harry Potter and Lord of the rings. The cons are; lack of details,”Usually adaptations, especially from long novels, mean that the adapter’s job is one of subtraction or contraction. This is called ‘a surgical art’ (Abbott 2002: 108)”, so they have to read through and note down the parts they think is needed. However the adapter’s own choice of what to include will not always be in favour by the audience. Another is leaving the audience limiting their imagination, the joys of reading books is being able to depict how you see the characters and setting,”For the reader, spectator, or listener, adaptation as adaptation is unavoidably a kind of intertextuality if the receiver is acquainted with the adapted text. It is an ongoing dialogical process, as Mikhail Bakhtin would have said, in which we compare the work we already know with the one we are experiencing (Stam 2000: 64)”. This is similar to what happened in Fifty Shades of Grey when some audiences were left disappointed by Christian Grey being depicted by Jamie Dornan.In adaptations, fidelity becomes an important issue. This is because the audience who watch the adaptation often compare it to the original source, they see whether it has stayed faithful to the original, and this creates an expectation for the viewers. The fidelity of a film can matter to some viewers, however not it does not matter for everyone.However the theorist Linda Hutcheon she mentions it is not important to her. Linda Hutcheon a theorist,  who wrote ‘The theory of adaptation’ in 2006, discusses and answers the question in her book; How can adaptation be theorized without resorting fidelity discourse? In her book she writes that she rejects the idea of fidelity, because it creates false hierarchy. The adaptation is not given credit as the original art form, it is always viewed secondary to the original. An example of a literary adaptation is, Fight Club. The novel was written in 1996 by Chuck Palahniuk. Three years later, it was made into ‘1999’s film of the year’ by David Fincher and screenwriter Ji, Uhl. The screenwriters adaptation of Palaniuk book was faithful, there were a few key plot points in the novel that were changed for the film version. One key plot that was changed was the ending. In the novel, the narrator does not shoot himself, although as Edward Norton’s character does in the movie. Another key plot that was different was when Marla tells the narrator about a lump that she has found in her breast and he consoles her by telling her embarrassing stories of himself, however in Jim Uhl’s adaptation of the novel, in that particular scene, the narrator checks Marla’s breast awkwardly and leaves her hotel room. This was heavily criticized by the audiences, because Marla in the film is seen more as an object to the narrator than an actual character. “Film complicates literary narration by practicing two parallel and intersecting forms of narration – the verbal narration (voice-over or speech of characters), and a combination of telling and showing / staging a fictional world (narration and monstration)” (Stam 2008).Most people agree that the film had been faithful to its original text, however some disagree with a few scenes changing which can create a new perspective of the film. Nonetheless, it is still important to consider that fidelity is only an important issue to a small portion of the films audience.This could be due to the fact, audiences are becoming passive and instead of reading books, they wait for filmmakers to make an adaptation of the text and that’s why they won’t be able to see if the adaptation is faithful to its source.Overall, adaptation is the transformation of a original source to a film, and this does include reboots as well. Adaptations do face problems such as fidelity, however fidelity is not important to everyone, mainly fans. This is because fans of the film adaptation are familiar with the original source and from this, it is harder for directors to gain positive reception from them, as they will have their own interpretation of the source.Fidelity, for some (such as those who have read a book prior to watching the movie adaptation) is crucial, whereas others often care far less, and trust that any alterations to the original piece. Remakes do fall in the same category as adaptations, as they are remodels of old adaptations, with the director’s own interpretation.To conclude this argument it is evident that adaptations are a positive part of filmmaking as they allow the artist to have a fresh platform when recreating their ideas from an original text.