Adolescents (Mathibe, 2015). Parenting styles practices are


Adolescence is a
transition period from childhood to adulthood spanning between ages 10 to 18
years. (Satrock, 2013).  A period beginning with the onset of
puberty and ending with individuals assume adult roles and responsibilities
(Baron and Misra, 2014).  It is marked by
developmental stages identified with significant physical, cognitive, social
and emotional changes. Late adolescents being from the 17-18 years of age.

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Perceived Parenting style

Perceived parenting style is defined
as the judgment of adolescents or children about the styles of parenting
practices during their childhood. It is the child perception of the parents and
their behaviour and attitude towards them. (Mathibe, 2015). Parenting styles
practices are specific behaviours used by parents to socialize their children.
They refer to a constellation of attitudes towards the child, communicated to
them, creating an emotional climate in which parents behaviours are expression
(Tahil, 2014). They have an influence on child outcome. Baumrind (1968)
categorized parents according to whether they are high or low on demandingness
and responsiveness which creates the four parenting styles, Authoritative,
Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful.

Authoritative. Refers to parents who try to direct
the adolescents activities in a rational, issue oriented manner. This style of
parenting is characterized by warmth and encourages verbal give and take. They
set clear standards for conduct and uses reason, power, and shaping by regime
to reinforce conduct.

Authoritarian. Refers to parenting attempt to
shape, control, and evaluate the behaviour and attitudes of the child within
absolute set standards. They value obedience as a virtue and may use punitive
and forceful measure to curb self-will.

Permissive. This style is characterized by
parents who behave in a non-punitive, acceptant and affirmative manner towards
the child’s desires and actions. Allows the child to regulate her own
activities and does not exercise control nor encourage obedience to externally
defined standards.

Negligent. These parents take an uncontrolling
approach and tend to be lax. They do not engage with their children nor do they
devote energy to the children’s upbringing and rearing

Responsiveness. Refers to how sensitive, supportive, and involved parents are.

Parental Demandingness. Is the extent to
which parents hold high expectations about their children’s behaviour and
monitor and supervise their activities?


Resilience can be defined as reduced
vulnerability to environmental risk experiences, the overcoming of a stress or
adversity, or a relatively good outcome despite risk experiences (Rutter,
2006).  As defined by Connor and Davidson
resilience is the ability to cope with stress and varies with context, time,
age, gender and culture. 

Stream of study.

Stream of study refers to the academic branch selected by
the adolescent at the end of their 10th standard. This stream
becomes the focus of study in their 11th -12th. The
streams depend on the board of examination mainly; State board (Pre University
College), Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), Indian Certificate
Secondary Education (ICSE) and the International Baccalaureate (IB). The boards
differ in syllabi, structure and methods of teaching. The students can choose
from one of the following streams; Science, Commerce or humanities. For the
purpose for this research the researcher will focus on the Science and
humanities stream for standard 12th students in the CBSE board.


Humanities stream. Academic discipline which deals
with the study of the human condition and includes subjects like History,
Geography, Political Science, Psychology, Sociology, languages, Anthropology,
Human resources and journalism This is the widest stream of studies.

Science stream. This is field is related to
medical and engineering, with subjects    like
Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology Computer Science, Home Science.


The present study proposes a sample of late adolescents ranging from age 17-18
years (Santrock, 2013), who are in the 12th standard studying pursuing
Science and Humanities streams, under the CBSE Examination board. An equal
number of males and females would be approached, for current study. The sample
frame would be adolescents from the state of Karnataka.


Size. The sample
size would be 120 adolescents ranging from 17-18 years of age.  An equal distribution of 30 males and 30 females
from the science stream and 30 males and females from the humanities stream.


Method.  The design would take on non probability
convenience and purposive sampling methods. Convenience sampling uses samples who
are available to the researcher by virtue of accessibility (Bryman, 2012).
Purposive is selected based on the characteristics of the population and the
objectives of the study.



Inclusion Criteria


study would include both males and females belonging to the age group of 17-18
years of age

sample would also include those adolescents in the 12 standard

pursuing Science and Humanities streams

in the care of both mother and father

Indian nationals


Exclusion Criteria


study would exclude adolescent residing in the hostel or boarding schools.

who are illiterate

whose parents are separated

whose parents are divorced 6
months prior the study

whose parents are have died 6 months prior the study

Tools for Data Collection


Demographic Sheet.
The socio demographic sheet will contain the following information. Name, Age,
Gender, Email ID, Family annual Income, Mother’s profession, Father’s
profession, stream of study, no. of siblings, Living with both parents




The scale of Parenting
Style by Abdul Gafoor K & Abidha Kurukkan developed in 2014. Which measures the four
parenting styles proposed by Baumrind (1971) namely authoritative,
authoritarian, permissive and negligent are scaled based on a quadrant of high
and low levels of parental responsiveness and control suggested by Maccoby and
Martin (1983). The items are constructed on socio-cultural and educational
circumstances of adolescent students in Kerala, India. The validity coefficient
is found that 0.80 for responsiveness and 0.76 for control subscale. The
test-retest coefficient of reliability of responsiveness variable in the scale
is 0.81 and for control it is 0.83.

Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The CD-RISC is a 25 item scale developed by
Connor and Davidson (2003) to measure resilience. It uses a five point Likert
response format ranging from zero (not true at all) to four (true nearly all
the time), with a total score range from 0 to 100. The internal consistency is
0.89, the test retest reliability is 0.87. The convergent validity is found to
be 0.83 when correlated with the Korbasa hardiness scales.


for Data Collection.

The researcher would identify the
schools to include in the study followed by a face to face meeting with the
principal, in which the purpose and process will be explained. Upon agreement
the informed consent of the schools and the participants will be taken. All
participants contacted voluntarily agreed to participate in the study.
Participants meeting the criterion for inclusion will be briefed regarding the
study and their socio-demographic details. Instructions for questionnaire will
be given to the participants and the duly filled questionnaires will be

Procedure for Data Analysis.


The data will be collected upon
completion, scored and interpreted according to the norms. Using the
statistical Package of the Social Sciences (SPSS 22) software will be used to
compute these calculations. For hypothesis 1 Correlation and Regression test
would be used. For hypothesis 2, 3, 4 a multivariate analysis of variance
(MANOVA) will be used for analysis.

Ethical Consideration.

Informed consent will be taken from
approached participant of the study. A consent form will be prepared for this
purpose. The assent document should clearly state circumstances under which
confidentiality between researchers and participants and inform them of their
voluntary participation. If the distinction is not made clear from the start,
participants may disclose personal information.