ABSTRACTSmart features like panic assist. Drowsiness detector

ABSTRACTSmart Steering Wheel is an integrated system designed to ease and automate the process of tracking important parameters of the car, with assisting the driver for better and safe driving, helping prevent accidents. This will be done with the help of features like smart steering, drowsiness detection, GPS tracking, alcohol detection etc. Smart steering is a cover made to be wrapped around the steering wheel which will correct the driver’s hand position while driving, which can be further modified to provide features like panic assist. Drowsiness detector is a camera attached on the steering wheel which will keep a track of the driver’s eyes, and warn him if he seems unfit to drive due to drowsiness. Further advancements can be made to this project with the help of better access to technology, and more hands on time with an actual car, making the device more efficient.I. INTRODUCTIONSmart Steering Wheel is an integrated system designed to ease and automate the process of tracking important parameters of the car like engine oil health, tyre pressure, coolant health etc. with assisting the driver for better and safe driving, helping in preventing accidents.This will be done with the help of features like smart steering, parameter tracking, drowsiness detection, GPS tracking, alcohol detection, etc. Smart steering is cover made to be wrapped around the steering wheel  which  will correct the  driver hand position while driving, which can be further modified to provide features like panic assist. Drowsiness detector is a camera attachaed on the steering wheel that continously monitor the state of the driver and also notify the driver when he/she is not fit to drive.  Further advancements can be made to this project with the help of better access to technology, and more hands on time with an actual car, making the device more and more efficient and helpful.Nearly 1.2 million people die in road crashes each year, on average 3,286 deaths a day. An additional20-60 million are injured or disabled. More thanhalf of all road traffic deaths occur among young adults ages 15-45. Road traffic crashes rank as the9th leading cause of death and account for 2.1% of all deaths globally. Road crashes are the leading cause of death among young people ages 15-30, and the second leading cause of death worldwide among young people ages 5-14.Each year nearly400,000 people under 30 die on the world’s roads, on average over 1,000 a day. Over 90% of all road fatalities occur  in  low  and  middle-income countries, which have less than half of the world’svehicles. Road crashes cost USD $519 billion globally, costing individual countries from 1-2% of their annual GDP. Road crashes cost low and middle-income countries USD $65 billion annually, exceeding the total amount received in developmental assistance. Unless action is taken, road traffic injuries are predicted to become the fifth leading cause of death in a decade.The leading causes of road accidents are:1.    Distracted Driving2.    Speeding3.    Drunk Driving4.    Reckless Driving5.    Night Driving6.    Drowsy Driving7.    Tire BlowoutsII. LITERATURE SURVEYIn 1879, Karl Benz was given was granted a patent for his first engine, and in 1885, the first car was created. Since then, there has been numerous advancements in the automobile industry. A number of features like Power Steering, Air conditioner, Music System, were introduced in a car. Also, numerous safety features like Safety Belt, Air Bags, Antilock Brakes, Traction Control, Electronic Brake Distribution, Electronic Stability Control, etc. were introduced to make driving safe.There are a lot of road accidents happening across the world. The main reasons for the accidents are one hand driving, drinking and driving, driving while feeling drowsy. Such accidents are not only dangerous for the driver but also for the co-passengers and also for other people in the vicinity.So we have designed a steering wheel cover and drowsiness detection eyewear which will help reduce accidents. The steering wheel detects whether both the hands are on the steering of the car. Driver drowsiness detection is a carsafety technology which helps prevent accidents caused by the driver getting drowsy.However, although these features assisted the driver and make driving more easy and fun, they didn’t stop accidents as there are various other areas left untapped which needs monitoring and caution. Drivers sometimes tend to be careless and reckless while driving, taking wrong decisions on the road resulting in major accidents. They also need to keep a regular check on engine oil, tyre pressure, engine coolant, etc. Also, car theft is increasing day by day and the car owners and the insurance companies suffer a lot due to this.Our Vehicle management system helps caution the driver, keep check on the essential parameters of the car, and prevent major accidents by assisting the driver. Vehicle Management system will serve as an integrated module which can be installed in any car to help drivers be careful resulting in saving a lot of money of the owner as well as the insurance companies. It will also help prevent some major wrong decisions and in turn save a lot of livesThe paper on Vigilance measurement system through analysis of visual and emotional driver’s signs using wavelet networks presented by Ines Teyeb, OlfaJamai, MouradZaied in the year2016 describes the Basic working of dizziness tracker was understood. The values of readings to be coded and the distance to be maintained between the lamp and eyes is understood. The paper onStatistical analysis of DMV crash data presented by Wenting Tong, Paul Cherian, Jianzhe Liu in the year 2016 describes Stats were used in introduction and used to explain motivation. The paper on A Driver State Detection System presented by Stephan Muhlbacher-Karrer, Ahmad Haj Mosa, Lisa-Marie Faller, Mouhannad Ali, Raiyan Hamid, Hubert Zangl and KyandoghereKyamakya in the year 2017  describesPressure monitoring . The synchronization of each component with the main system was seen.III. PROJECT WORKSoftware Requirements: 1. Opencv + Haarcascade: OpenCV-Python is a Python wrapper for the original OpenCV C++ implementation.OpenCV-Python makes use of Numpy, which is a highly optimized library for numerical operations with a MATLAB-style syntax. All the OpenCV array structures are converted to and from Numpy arrays.Hardware Requirements:1. Camera: A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both. The images may be individual still photographs or sequences of images constituting videos or movies. The camera is a remote sensing device as it senses subjects without any contact . The word camera comes from camera obscura, which means “dark chamber” and is the Latin name of the original device for projecting an image of external reality onto a flat surface. The modern photographic camera evolved from the camera obscura. The functioning of the camera is very similar to the functioning of the human eye. A camera may work with the light of the visible spectrum or with other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. A still camera is an optical device which creates a single image of an object or scene and records it on an electronic sensor or photographic film. All cameras use the same basic design: light enters an enclosed box through a converging lens/convex lens and an image is recorded on a light-sensitive medium(mainly a transition metal-halide). A shutter mechanism controls the length of time that light can enter the camera.Most photographic cameras have functions that allow a person to view the scene to be recorded, allow for a desired part of the scene to be in focus, and to control the exposure so that it is not too bright or too dim. A display, often a liquid crystal display(LCD), permits the user to view scene to be recorded and settings such as ISO speed, exposure, and shutter speed.A movie camera or a video camera operates similarly to a still camera, except it records a series of static images in rapid succession, commonly at a rate of 24 frames per second. When the images are combined and displayed in order, the illusion of motion is achieved2. Arduino Uno: Arduino is an open source computer hardware and software company, project, and user community that designs and manufactures single-board. microcontrollers and microcontroller kits for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control objects in the physical world. The project’s products are distributed as open-source hardware and software, which are licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License  or the GNU General Public License ,  permitting the manufacture of Arduino boards and software distribution by anyone. Arduino boards are available commercially in preassembled form, or as do-it-yourself  kits.Arduino board designs use a variety of microprocessors and controllers. The boards are equipped with sets of digital and analog input/output pins that may be interfaced to various expansion boards and other circuits. The boards feature serial communications interfaces, including Universal Serial Bus  on some models, which are also used for loading programs from personal computers. The microcontrollers are typically programmed using a dialect of features from the programming languages C and C++. In addition to using traditional compiler toolchains, the Arduino project provides an integrated development environment based on the Processing language project.The Arduino Uno can be programmed with the Select “Arduino/Genuino Uno from the Tools > Board menu (according to the microcontroller on your board).The ATmega328 on the Arduino Uno comes preprogrammed with a bootloader that allows you to upload new code to it without the use of an external hardware programmer. It communicates using the original STK500 protocol.The Arduino Uno board can be powered via the USB connection or with an external power supply. The power source is selected automatically.External (non-USB) power can come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2.1mm center-positive plug into the board’s power jack. Leads from a battery can be inserted in the GND and Vin pin headers of the POWER connector.The board can operate on an external supply from 6 to 20 volts. If supplied with less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board may become unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board. The recommended range is 7 to 12 volts.The ATmega328 has 32 KB (with 0.5 KB occupied by the bootloader). It also has 2 KB of SRAM and 1 KB of EEPROM Arduino/Genuino Uno has a number of facilities for communicating with a computer, another Arduino/Genuino board, or other microcontrollers. The ATmega328 provides UART TTL  serial communication, which is available on digital pins 0  and 1 . An ATmega16U2 on the board channels this serial communication over USB and appears as a virtual com port to software on the computer. The 16U2 firmware uses the standard USB COM drivers, and no external driver is needed. However, on Windows, a .inf file is required. The Arduino Software (includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the board. The RX and TX LEDs on the board will flash when data is being transmitted via the USB-to-serial chip and USB connection to the computer 3. MEMS Pressure Sensor: In less than 20 years, MEMS (micro electro-mechanical systems) technology has gone from an interesting academic exercise to an integral part of many common products. But as with most new technologies, the practical implementation of MEMS technology has taken a while to happen. The design challenges involved in designing a successful MEMS product (the ADXL2O2E) are described in this article by Harvey Weinberg from Analog Devices.In early MEMS systems a multi-chip approach with the sensing element (MEMS structure) on one chip, and the signal conditioning electronics on another chip was used.IV. WORKING fig 1.Working TriangleHere we are using a camera which will be used to detect the state of the driver. It’s been done by image processing which is given from the camera mounted on the steering wheel. When the camera detects dizzy state of state of the  driver then  it sounds an alarm to bring driver to its normal state. A pressure sensor is been used to hand position of the driver.V.MethodologyOur system works to help the driver to attain great concentration while driving. For the same purpose we have implanted a drowsiness detection system, which detects the dizziness of the driver witrh the help of the image processing through the camera which is been placed on the steering wheel. This system continously monitors driver’s state and alerts him when he/she is feeling dizzy while driving. This system consists of the camera, a raspberry pi which processes the video and detects when eyes of the driver are closed. When the eyes of the driver are closed for more then 3 seconds then the system raises an alarm. Another system which consists of pressure sensor are placed on the steering wheel to detect the position of hands of driver. When hands of the driver are not on the steering wheel for more then five second then a buzzer will make noise.VI. Block Diagram Fig 1. Block diagram of dizziness detector Fig 2.Block Diagram of pressure sensorVI. SCOPE OF PROJECTThere can be more features added to the current system to enhance it and cover a wider spectrum in terms of safety. Such features include:1.    GPS Tracker:This feature enables the owner of the car to track his car at every moment. This will help in tracking the car in the parking lot, warn and control the driver in regards with the speed of the car. It will also help new drivers, especially their parents, to track them and get record of their speeds and driving performance.2.    Alcohol Detector:An alcohol detector can be placed on the steering wheel or somewhere near the driver, so that he can make sure he is not under influence while driving, and also, the car can be programmed in such  a  way  that  the  car won’t start if alcohol is detected. This will help reduce one of the major causes of car crashes.3.    Panic Assist:While driving, if the car skids, due to oil spill, rain, etc. the driver goes in a state of panic.This may lead him to move steering in unexpected way and in rapid motion. Panic Assist will detect this movement and harden the movement of the steering resulting in smooth movement of the car and balancing and stabilizing of the car.VII. CONCLUSIONSmart Steering Wheel can help revolutionizes the current automobile and insurance industry by providing details via  an  automated process. The parameters which were ignored or not monitored on a more frequent basis will be monitored on a regular basis.Also, the safety and caution features will decrease the  no.  of  accidents by  at  least  30%.  This  will decrease the annual death rates due to car crashes from 3287 to 2300 a day, which in turn will help save 3,60,255 lives a year which is more than the population of the entire Maldives.Also if the device is put under an automated manufacturing line for mass production, it is estimated to cost less than Rs.15000 retail.VIII. EXPECTED RESULTThe objective to help driver concentrate and drive safely by minimizing his distractions and assisting him in various areas is achieved. Dizziness tracker will check conciousness of the driver, judging whether he is fit to drive or not. And the hand posture corrector will help driver adjust his hand posture making his driving more safe.