AbstractInternet accessible from anywhere.The aim of this

AbstractInternet of things (IoT) is a very important form of networking technology that will play a significant role in changing human lifestyle, by utilising communications between machines. In IoT every component of a machine, sensors and Internet services work in tandem to provide a smart environment. Internet is provided via various types of media, wireless and wired. This allows IoT enabled things to observe the surrounding conditions, record any human interaction with the machine, software systems, other IoT enabled machines and sharing the information to enable a smart living. This paper will provide an overview of IoT, Its applications and future.Keywords: Smart living, future technology, IoT applications.Introduction Internet has changed the way humans live, it has a reach that no other form communication has ever had. Almost every sector of a nation’s administration utilizes the internet. Human communication, educational resources and many other services have been made easily accessible. Internet of things is the next stage of improving the services made available through the internet. Objects equipped with sensors and connected to the internet can communicate with one another and make decisions and perform actions. *insert+*Things able to use the internet and communicate with one another at any time will enable them to provide services and creating systems such as smart cars, smart wearables, energy conservation systems, automation and security services.It is projected that by the next decade IoT systems will become a part of normal day to day routine of most human beings in developed and developing countries. Smartphones, smart objects, cloud storage, various cloud storage platforms and sensors which will result in an highly interconnected system of different networks creating a resource of information accessible from anywhere.The aim of this paper is to give an overview of IoT, how it works, what are its applications, and what its future moving forward. Section 2 will give an understanding of what is required to make an IoT system and how it works In section 3 we will see a few applications of this technology. In section 4 we will speculate on its future trends. The problems and challenges ahead will be discussed in section 5. Building BlocksSensors – a wide variety of sensors are available to be utilized depending on the applications and action that needs to be performed. They could include infrared cameras and motion sensors for security systems, multimeters for monitoring power consumption, radar systems for smart self driving cars, wireless thermometer for for measuring a rooms temperature wirelessly and controlling it. RFID tag readers can track a person’s whereabouts. Many sensors can be used for many applications, sky is the limit in this case.Networks – Data collected by the sensors need a reliable, high performance network to transfer the information to a processing unit. These networks can be wired and wireless, most small IoT systems work on gateways that can be formed up of ethernet cable or a WIFI connection (LAN) or small field networks such as Zigbee, Bluetooth and NFC (PAN) can be used. For a big system networks like GSM, 3G and LTE are used and use Internet as a medium.Local processing –  processing information locally is an essential part of IoT. most of the time MCUs(microcontrollers) or MPUs(microprocessors) are used which can provide real time embedded processing. For a home security system doors equipped with sensors, motion sensors and infrared cameras have a simple controller which interacts with a master MCU/MPU. This MCU/MPU can communicate via the internet and give a live feed of the house to the owner. IoT systems have a few requirements need to be fulfilled by MPUs/MCUs – a) Energy efficiency b) Embedded architecture with a rich software ecosystem c) Portfolio breadth that enables software scalability d) Cost-effectiveness   Software – Software or a mobile application is very essential for interacting with the IoT system. A simple interface plays an important role in providing a Smart environment for better living.ApplicationsInternet of things has a huge potential of making lives easier, safe, efficient and smart. There are many applications like smart homes, security systems, interconnected smart cars and various other uses.A) Smart Homes Wi-Fi’s technologies in home automation has been used primarily as many electronic devices such as TVs, mobile devices, etc are usually supported by Wi-Fi. All of the devices can work together to make an integrated system.For example an online streaming services at home may provide a mean to control the device functionality over a network. At the same timemobile devices ensure that consumers have access to a portable ‘controller’ for the electronicsconnected to the network. Both types of devices can be used as gateways for IoT applications.Internet of things enables homes and buildings to operate many devices and objects smartly, of the most interesting application of IoT in smart homes and buildings are smart lighting, smart environmental and media, air control and central heating, energy management and security.The future Internet of Things, will provide an intelligent building management systems which can be considered as a part of a much larger information system used by facilities managers in buildings to manage energy use and energy procurement and to maintain buildings systems.B)  Energy conservation.Creating a smart grid that integrate a network for communications to the electrical network will create a path for two way communication between suppliers and consumers, which will help in monitoring energy flow and deliver electricity more efficiently and sustainably. Main technology that is used in smart grids is ICTs (information and communications technology). The main elements of ICTs include sensors, power flow monitors, an infrastructure to to transmit data across the grid, an interface with in home display to monitor usage, controlling power flow and compute and process various data to make a very efficient system for consumption of energy.Integrating today’s grid and renewable energy technologies using IoT will benefit the consumer by cost saving and efficient energy use.C) HealthcareHospitalised patients whose physiological health need close attention can be monitored continuously can be done easily by using IoT technologies. Health sensors are used to monitor and collect information and send the data further on to the cloud where it can be analysed and be readily available to doctors and nurses to diagnose and observe. This will eliminate the need for regular visits of the doctor to check vitals, instead it will provide continuous and automated monitoring, this process will end up improving the quality of healthcare and will also lower the cost through data analysis.Humans and other life forms suffer from bad health because they don’t have access to health monitoring systems .Making small energy efficient and cheap devices for healthcare available to the masses will result in massive data collection which can be analyzed by complex algorithm and give a correct diagnosis and prescription required by any patient.D) TransportationTransportation system is like a lifeline for a nation’s well being and development. Continuous monitoring and maintenance of road conditions can be done using IoT. principles like Crowdsourcing information and participatory sensing are applied to cars connected to a form of widespread network and which are equipped with sensors. Using GPS we can track potholes and other disturbances and mark them which can be later on accessed by other smart cars and plot a path with the least disturbances. Smart transportation deals with three main concepts which are transport analytics, transportation control and vehicle connectivity. Transportation analytics deals with detection and analysing of data gathered. Plotting and routing the path and speed control are part of transport control. All of this is made possible by vehicle connectivity which uses V2X communication and is governed by multi-technology dissemination.Many governments have started to support research of smart electric vehicles which play an important role in reducing fuel costs and the overall impact on global warming. Lithium-ion batteries are used to power these electric vehicles, monitoring the health and performance of these batteries using IoT is very important for the system and the driver so that they can an idea of how to plot a route.E) Smart Factories Smart factory is manufacturing revolution that integrates many different smart technologies such as machine learning, automation, artificial intelligence and machine to machine communication(M2M). Manufacturing smartly will fundamentally change the way products are made and will also play an important part in innovation. There are many other benefits to applying IoT based technologies in manufacturing process, it will improve worker safety and by controlling emission, protect the environment. New ways of manufacturing will also result in low incidents. Shifting decision making from humans to technical system will reduce the human error factor. M2M communication combined with Big Data concept will offer many analytical possibilities, big amounts of data produced by the smart factory will help optimize the industrial process.The first generation of manufacturing is related to mechanical machines being introduced. The second generation dealt with mass production, big assembly lines. Introduction of computation and automation is known as the third generation. Introduction of smart factories and smart technologies is known as the fourth generation.F) IoT and Robotics in DefenceIoT can expand any system exponentially when used effectively. It expands the robotics field applications in defence. Acquiring information in an unknown environment for detecting harmful chemicals and weapons using sensors can be made very easy using IoT.These concepts have been theoretically implemented which can capture information from people, equipment and materials in military environment. Sensors can collect information and share the data among military objects and control centres.Some applications of IoT aided robotics-Autonomous detection of harmful chemicals and biological weaponsRemote control of land vehicles and aircraftRemote assistance in civil operations Deactivation of bombs in secured environmentsControl and identifying intrusions in restricted areasChallenges of IoTInterconnectivity –  Different smart objects have different processing and communication capabilities. As there’s a lack of common standards different smart objects are subjected to different conditions such as energy availability and bandwidth requirements Data Storage – some application involve data collection by sensors and analysis. Large scale networks collect huge volumes of data. All of the data require many mechanisms for data storing, processing and management.Scalability – different applications of IoT require different scalability, large scale and small scale environments need to work together efficiently. IoT requires functions and methods in order for efficient operation for scalabilitySecurity –  There is a need to stop certain services from communicating with other things in IoT and also business transactions involving smart objects would need to be protected. In addition to the security and protection aspects of the Internet services such as communications confidentiality, the authenticity and trustworthiness of communication partners, and message integrity would also be important in Internet of ThingsPower supply: Smart things which are not connected to a constant power supply need to be powered from a self-sufficient energy source. Although passive RFID transponders do not need their own energy source, their functionality and communications range are very limited. Energy saving is a factor not only in hardware and system architecture, but also in software.Wireless communications: From an energy point of view, established wireless technologies such as GSM, UMTS, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth are far less suitable; more recent WPAN standards such as ZigBee and others still under development may have a narrower bandwidth, but they do use significantly less power.Automatic Discovery: In dynamic environments, suitable services for things must be automatically identified, which requires appropriate semantic means of describing their functionality.Software complexity: A more extensive software infrastructure will be needed on the network and on background servers in order to manage the smart objects and provide services to support them. that because the software systems in smart objects will have to function with minimal resources, as in conventional embedded systems.