Abstract: and girls who are subjected to violence


 Gender based violence streamed from the
inequality between men and women, which have led to certain oppression and
violence against women is on the rise in all parts of the world. “Women are
forced into a subordinate position compared with men” (DEVAW). Women and girls
who are subjected to violence are mostly depressing, hopeless and feel
worthless all the time, and that they think they do not have control over their
own lives and bodies. This has direct consequences with respect to their
health, employment and participation in social and political life (Kelly
2005).Violence against women can take an ugly turn when women suffer in the
four walls of their home, Domestic violence has become an incurable disease
which has spread to every corner of the world, the virus has become the
powerful silent killer which has claim millions of women’s lives all across the
globe.  No society, religion, class and
caste can claim to be free from the diseases of domestic violence. It causes
Women to live in fear, trauma, and pain, and rob away their basic human right
to live with liberty and dignity. The victims suffer silently and are powerless
to fight back, This powerlessness is mainly due to the phenomenon of “dominant-submissive”
axis in interpersonal relationship, where the victims are wholly dependent upon
the mercy of her husband and in laws, whereby the oppressor becomes more
dominant, displaying his controlling power over the weaker section of his
family, his wife and his children. In India, till date, women are still treated
as second class citizens and their basic rights are being violated every day,
though  a lot of steps and measures has
been taken by the Indian government to improve the condition of women in the
country, women still suffer a lot, this is primarily because  their oppressor is someone  close to them. In NE states of India where
majority of the population are habited by tribal communities, women enjoy more
freedom and privilege as compared to the women 
in other parts of the country. But despite this, crime against women is
on the rise and one out of four women in NE India experiences domestic violence
in their lifetime.

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Keywords : Women,
status, domestic violence.

Introduction :

Violence against women is
extremely common and it is one of the most widespread violation of human rights
(Kaur 2001) and it happens everywhere, in the workplace, in the street and even
at home, for which is regarded as the most safest place. In 2002, the Council
of Europe adopted a definition of violence against women and in particular
domestic violence, similar to that used in the United Nations Assembly
Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women3 in 1993. Violence
against Women is defined as follows:-

….”any act of gender-based
violence, which results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or
psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts,
coercion, or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or
private life. This includes,… violence occurring in the family or domestic
unit, …physical and mental aggression, emotional and psychological abuse, rape
and sexual abuse, incest, rape between spouses, regular or occasional partners
and cohabitants, crimes committed in the name of honor, female genital and
sexual mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, such as
forced marriages”.

 Intimate partner violence against women causes
significant and adverse mental and physical health effects (Campbell, 2002 Walton-Moss,
Manganello, Frye, & Campbell, 2005) and is a major public health and social
problem (Epstein, 1999). Reducing the occurrence of intimate partner violence
against women is a priority for the two major systems of formal social control
and assistance in the United States, the criminal legal and health care
systems. However, the majority of women who experience intimate partner
violence do not report it to the police (Bachman and Coker, 1995).

The unequal treatment of men and
women is the root cause of various problems in the society. Domestic violence
being one of the most prevalent. Constitutionally men and women are equal yet
the grim reality is that women are still treated as inferior to men. In various
society women have no right to  property,
no right over the  children and cannot
take part in any decision making, inside 
the family or in the society. Though with many reforms and laws
protecting the weaker section women are still deprived of many things, in
recent times. there are massive changes in the participation of women in
banking, hospitality, educational institutions, and other sectors, but this is
just a of very less percentage.

Women In most  cases  are subjected to cruelty and ill treatment in
the hand of someone close to them, like their husbands and her  in laws. The case of such cruelty  against women is higher among the poor and
illiterate, living in rural villages as humbly they accept their fate as part
of the tradition and custom they live in. The problem of domestic violence
remain undetected and under reported as women should preserve the dignity of
her family by silently bearing the pain, and are force into subordination,
punishment and sense of powerlessness.

Domestic violence:

The term “domestic” refers to the
family home where such violence is perpetrated against women. Violence against
women at home is especially dangerous because while the home is said to be the
safest place for men, the home can be the least safe place for women (Edwards,
1989). Violence against women in their home is a unique phenomenon in the world
of violence and only in a prison or similar institution would an individual be
likely to encounter such persistent abuse or violence (Dobash & Dobash,

Women and children are often in
great danger in the place where they should be safest: within their families.
For many, ‘home’ is where they face a regime of terror and violence at the
hands of somebody close to them – somebody they should be able to trust. Those
victimized suffer physically and psychologically. They are unable to make their
own decisions, voice their own opinions or protect themselves and their
children for fear of further repercussions. Their human rights are denied and
their lives are stolen from them by the ever-present threat of violence. The
main similarity that can be found between domestic violence and terrorism
regards the psychological mechanisms triggered by these human rights violations,
both using intimidation in order to make the victim act in a certain way.
Therefore, after making the victim acknowledge that a pattern of violence would
follow if she does not behave in the way preferred by the perpetrator, the
violence is not needed anymore, only in order to maintain the victim’s state of
mind. This makes the subject of the abuse live in a state of continuous fear of
the aggressor, which usually leads to even more pathological consequences than
the physical abuse itself.

The female  victims of Domestic violence sometimes alter
their behavior so much (refraining from wearing certain clothes, developing
certain activities – such as leaving their jobs, having a social life, etc)
that in the end they finish by self – depriving themselves almost completely of
their personal liberty through this fear-modeled comportment. Because of the
same psychological mechanism, the abused children risk of ending up without
being able to assert their own will in front of others or develop a normal
independent personality. Physical injury, mental health problems, and complications
of pregnancy are some of the health consequences that result from violence
inflicted on women by their male partners or former partners.

Violence against women and girls
is a problem of pandemic proportions. Worldwide, an estimated one in five women
will be a victim of rape or attempted rape in her lifetime. One in three will
have been beaten, coerced into sex or otherwise abused, usually by a family
member or an acquaintance. The perpetrators – more often than not – go
unpunished. Each year, violence kills and disables as many women between the
ages of 15 and 44 as cancer does. And its toll on women’s health surpasses that
of traffic accidents and malaria combined ( UNFPA 2005).

Types of domestic violence:

Domestic violence includes
physical abuse like kicking, slapping ,hair pulling against another person or
the use of force which cause serious injury, even death. Verbal abuse like name
calling, insulting, yelling, mocking, constant harassment making the  victims to feel worthless, excessive
possessiveness and threatening.  Sexual
abuse which can be marital rape, any acts of forcing to participate in
unwanted, unsafe or degrading sex and forcing to watch pornography. Economic or
financial abuse includes withholding physical resources such as money, clothes,
food or shelter. Preventing the partner for having any occupations and
exploiting the partner financially. Domestic 
violence includes the controlling behavior and stalking  against the victim, which in many cases men
controlling and stalking their partners

Status of women in North East: The northeastern states of
India comprises of the state of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur ,Meghalaya,
Mizoram , Nagaland , Sikkim and Tripura. The region is rich in cultures, custom
and traditions, majority of population residing in the region are tribal
communities, which speaks different languages and have different customary laws
and beliefs. The status of women in NE is comparatively better than women of
main stream or other communities in the country; they enjoy greater mobility
and visibility in the society. The absence of Sati, female infanticide, bride
burning, purdah, etc indicate the high status of women in the region. To say
that they are different from their counterpart elsewhere is true, but that does
not mean that they are better, measuring their situation with the yardstick of
gender equality women of northeast are still lagging behind. Since women and
girls are still, suffering from ill- health, poverty , school dropout  and domestic violence, they have no decision
making power and their rights are violate every day.

Data source and methodology: 

The paper is based mainly on
secondary data sources, studies being conducted by eminent persons; it was also
based on the information collected through various journals, articles and
reports from the government and various organizations

Review of related literature:

Leela Visaria (1999) Some of the
worse forms of violence has been reported by Visaria in her study (1999), for
instance, beating with sticks or iron rod, knives, utensils, blades and ladles,
throwing women against objects or bashing their heads against the walls. Some of
the women who had become victim of this form of violence indicated that injury,
and they would be too ashamed to talk about it to others. A couple of women
also hinted that men know that their wives cannot report such punishment even
to their own parents or seek medical treatment due to a sense of shame. Some of
the reasons given by women, in the survey done by Visaria is, meals not served
properly, economic constraints, financial matters, men wasting money at tea
stalls, drinking of alcohol, men feeling that women are paying less attention
to the children and vis-à-vis, men feel women have a lot of free time and so

UNICEF (2000) “Violence against
women and girls continues to be a global epidemic that kills, tortures,and
maims – physically, psychologically, sexually and economically. It is one of
the most pervasive of human rights violations, denying women and girls
equality, security, dignity, self-worth, and their right to enjoy fundamental
freedoms.” While reliable statistics are hard to come by, studies estimate
that, from country to country, between 20 and 50 per cent of women have
experienced physical violence at the hands of an intimate partner or family

UNO(2013) The global statistics
show: between 13% and 61% of women 15–49 years old report that an intimate
partner has physically abused them at least once in their lifetime between 6%
and 59% of women report forced sexual intercourse, or an attempt at it, by an
intimate partner in their lifetime from 1% to 28% of women report they were physically
abused during pregnancy, by an intimate partner

Ms. R. Kalaiyarasi (2015)In
recent years there has been an alarming increase in atrocities and violence
against women in the country. It is estimated that the growth rate of crime
against women would be higher than the population growth rate by 2010, behind
closed doors of homes all across our country, women are being tortured, beaten
and killed. It is happening in rural areas, towns, cities and in metropolitans
as well.

Domestic violence in NE:

Various studies conducted by
different institutions shows that North east India is also suffering from this
social evil of Domestic violence. A study conducted in Imphal revealed that
53.6% of  women faced violence in their
married life,82% of the crime were committed by husbands and 27% by in-laws.
The study shows that 78% is emotional or verbal violence followed by 48% of
physical violence.

Women in Nagaland, Mizoram and
Sikkim were also reported to suffer domestic violence. There are only few
numbers of the cases reported and the rest are lying undetected. The Gender
Statistics Nagaland 2016 reported that crime against women in the state is
increasing which included molestation, rape, abuse and domestic violence. Data
collected by the National Family Health Survey in Mizoram shows an average 22
percent of wives in Mizoram suffered at the hand s of their husbands, while the
national average was 37 percent. Lalthansangi, Counselor of the Centre for
Peace and Development says a high percentage of domestic violence perpetrated
by husbands against wives are physical violence, and all categories of domestic
violence are inter-related, and the victims are from different section of
society including the poor, middle class and government employees, she further
added that many women do not report cases of physical violence by their
husbands for not being aware of the law against domestic violence.

In Meghalaya where lineage is
trace from the female line and women are 
earning respect equally to their male counterpart  in the society, still a large number of
women  are subjected to various issues of
cruel treatment. The Youth voices of human rights organization has conducted a
survey and reported that almost 50 percent of the women in the capital itself
are victims of domestic violence.

In Tripura the case of domestic
violence is another crime against women which top the list, The Tripura
Commission for Women report clarify that largest share of the case registered
is cruelty by husbands and in-laws. “The rate shows that women are much
insecure in their home amidst their relative than outside” words from chairperson
of the women Commission in Tripura.

State wise cruelty
by husbands and relatives during 2015-16 among the Northeastern States.



against women

Cruelty by
husbands and relatives












Arunachal Pradesh










































A   study which a was conducted among the Tani
tribe and Nyishi women   in Arunachal
Pradesh shows that domestic violence is much prevalent among the tribes,
analysis from  various case studies shows
the main cause  of domestic violence
among other factors that contribute to the problem is the extra marital affairs
of the husbands and socio economics background which often resulted in the
physical, emotional and economic abuse among the women.

case studies  which has been
conducted in the some parts of   Assam
witnessed the problem which faced by women in this area, most of the women in
this area bears the mental and physical torture at the hands of the husbands
and in-laws because of insecurity and having nowhere to go, lack of financial
support and certain form of economic abuse add to the problem of domestic
violence. Young women are vulnerable to physical abuse whereas upper age group
women are likely to be abused emotionally.



Women contribute a lot for the betterment of the society and
nation; they should not be treated as inferior to men. Women have the same ability
and qualities as men possesses. They can contribute enormously in the field of
education and health care because mothers are always the best tutor and
caretaker. Giving them the chance to participate beyond their circles will
enhance the benefit for the society and the country. Prior check on crime
against women should become the main issue of every community in the country.
Domestic violence not only paralyses the regular living of the victim but has
an adverse effect on the children as well. The country cannot move forward if
half of its population is under coercion.


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