ABSTRACT is also determined by two methods

ABSTRACT

Hydrogen ion concentration is
an experiment that expresses the concentration of hydrogen ions in aqueous
solution. The experiment involves two methods, one involving the use of litmus
paper and the other an electric pH-meter. 
This test can be used to determine the alkalinity or acidity of a mud sample
and also the conductivity.

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Contents
ABSTRACT. 2
CHAPTER
1. 4
INTRODUCTION.. 4
CHAPTER
2.. 5
APPARATUS
and SAMPLE. 5
CHAPTER
3.. 6
PROCEDURES. 6
CHAPTER
4.. 8
RESULTS. 8
CHAPTER
5.. 9
PRECAUTION
AND MAINTAINANACE. 9
CHAPTER
6.. 10
CONCLUSION.. 10
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

The term pH is one used in
expressing the concentration of hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. pH is the
logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration in gram moles per
litre. The pH is tested in two ranges: acidic and alkaline. It is also determined
by two methods which are: colorimetric and electrometric method.

 

o  
Colorimetric
method (pH Paper): With this method, the pH
paper is impregnated with dyes that exhibit different colors when exposed to
solutions of varying ph. If the salt concentration is too high, it may cause
the general estimate of the dye to be unreliable.

 

o  
Electrometric
method (pH meter): This is an instrument that
determines the pH of an aqueous solution by measuring the electro potential
generated between a special glass electrode and a reference electrode. The
meter has a range of 0 to 14 pH unit.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 2

APPARATUS
and SAMPLE

o  
Mixing cup 

o  
Mixer

o  
Measuring cylinder

o  
Weighing balance

o  
pH meter

o  
Litmus paper

 

Sample
1:

25g of Bentonite

350ml of Water

Sample
2:

25g of Bentonite

350ml of Water

3g of potassium Chloride
(PCL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 3

PROCEDURES

Colorimetric
Method:

o  
I measured 400ml of water
with the measuring tube.

o  
Using a weighing balance, I
measured 25g of bentonite.

o  
I turned water and bentonite
into the mixing cup and mixed with the mixer until the solution was homogenous.

o  
I took strip of PH paper and
placed it on the surface of the sample.

o  
After the color of the paper
stabilized, I reported the value of the pH using the standard chart.

o  
Using the pH-meter, I turned
it on with the OFF/ON key.

o  
I pushed the ph/mv key until
the annunciators indicated the desired mode.

o  
I rinsed the probe with
distilled water and immersed the probe into the solution and allowed it to
stabilize.

o  
Then, I took my readings.

o  
Then I repeated the same
procedures for sample 2

 

Electrometric
Method:

o  
I measured 400ml of water
with the measuring tube.

o  
Using a weighing balance, I
measured 25g of bentonite.

o  
I measured 3g of potassium
chloride (PCL).

o  
I turned water, PCL and
bentonite into the mixing cup and mixed with the mixer until the mixture was
homogenous.

o  
I took a strip of PH paper and
placed it on the surface of the sample.

o  
After the color of the paper
stabilized, I reported the value of the pH.

o  
Using the pH-meter, I turned
it on with the OFF/ON key.

o  
I pushed the ph/mv key until
the annunciators indicated the desired mode.

o  
I rinsed the probe with
distilled water and immersed the probe into the solution and allowed it to
stabilize.

o  
Then, I took my readings.

o  
Then I repeated the same
procedures for sample 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 4

RESULTS

Sample 1:

Litmus
paper

pH-meter
reading

Temp.
with meter

Conductivity

9pH

9.5pH

26.36?

-117.7

 

Sample 2:

Litmus
paper

pH-meter
reading

Temp.
with meter

Conductivity

8pH

8.5pH

26.6?

-50.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 5

PRECAUTION AND MAINTAINANACE

PRECAUTIONS:

o  
I
did not stick the pH paper into the fluid sample.

o  
I
ensured that the probe was not dry.

o  
I
made sure there was no lump in my mixture.

 MAINTAINANCE:

o  
When
the electrode is not in use, replace the cap which should be filled with KCL or
equivalent storage solution.

o  
Do
not use distilled or de-ionized water for storing under my circumstances.

o  
If
KCL or equivalent storage is not available, use tap water.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION

 

In conclusion, this
experiment is a necessary test for maintaining optimized mud properties and it
is determined through the colorimetric or the electrometric method but the
electrometric method is more favoured because it gives more accurate reading.

It was also observed that
potassium chloride reduces the pH of the mud which then makes it an acidic
salt.