Abstract citrus and orange fruits. (Khule.N.R et al.,



Pectin is a polysaccharide that contain mostly of two moieties.
These are homogalacturonan, (1-4) linked, a-Dgalacturonic acid and its methyl
ester; and rhamnogalacturonan I, (1-2) repeating linked, a-L-rhamnose-(1-4)
a-Dgalacturonic acid disaccharide. Pectin have been apply  in food industry but at this moment they are
being expand  for their other
pharmaceutical applications for example 
binding, thickening, suspending properties . Commonly, high methylated
pectin is of commercial crucial as the one get from citrus and orange fruits.
(Khule.N.R et al., 2012)

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There are two theories about existence of pectin in plants:

(i) Attachment to the cell wall through calcium ions

(ii) Existence as protopectin which is covalently bonded to other
cell wall

     constituents. (More
accepted theory)


Pectin for food use is determined as a polymer that contain
polygalacturonic acid units (at least 65%).The acid units may either be free (-COOH),
combined as a methyl ester (-COOCH3) or as sodium(-COO-Na+),potassium, calcium
or ammonium salts. Generally, preparations in which half of the carboxyl groups
are in the methyl ester form (COOCH3) are classified as high methoxyl pectins.
Preparations that less than half of thecarboxyl groups are in the methyl ester
form are defined as low-methoxyl pectins.



One of the big problems challenging the
food industry throughout the world is how to make full use of the waste
material. These waste materials for example citrus peels and other residues
from 60% to 65% of bulk citrus fruit after processing (McCready et al., 1952). Usually
the residues are normally thrown as waste during processing. In order to overcome this issue, food industries
have started to search for alternative by citrus
fruits peels mainly end as a waste but could be put to better use by extracting
the pectin. Besides, rise of
waste value of citrus peel as a source of pectin could be accomplish through
extraction of other components from the waste. With respect to food processing,
the general trend in the countries are to study the utilization of pectin (various
sources) in jam processing.




This study aim to extract pectin from orange and lemon peels and
its application in jam making. Jam was processed using the extracted pectin as well
as commercial pectin, then the physicochemical characteristics and sensory
evaluation were determined for the products.




1) To extract pectin from orange and lemon fruit peels as well as
the utilization of extracted pectin in the production of jam and assessment of
the product chemical and sensory quality.

2)  Determination of pectin
content of citrus fruits.





5.1) Citrus


Citrus fruits are leading not only in total production, but also in
economic value. One of citrus fruit such as oranges, specifically, the oranges
(Citrus sinensis (L.) are a very generally growing tree fruit in the world.
Oranges are universally cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates, which
is peeled and eaten whole, or processed to get orange juice and also to get the
fragrance. (Tiwari.A.K et al.,           2017)


5.2) Sweet


The sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.)) are a very generally
growing tree fruit in the world. (Pandharipande S et al., 2012). Sweet lemon
(Citrus sinensis) is one of the citrus fruits, usually known as grown tree
fruit in the world. ‘Mosambi’ (sweet lemon), a part of the most crucial commercial
citrus fruits that grow well in the central India which take total area about
41 018 ha and the annual production approximately of 0.4 million tonnes (Shinde
and Kulkarni 2000). Citrus fruits are not only leading in total production, but
also in economic value. Citrus fruits actually have two parts called the peels
(rind skin) and pulp. Both parts of fruits are easy to separate from each other
with the pulp still can act as the edible parts of the fruit while the peels
can be as a great supply to get the pectin (McGready, 1996). A precious
by-product that can get from fruit wastes is pectin. (Devi.W.E et al., 2014)




5.3) Pectin


Henry Braconnot was the first person that describes and distinguishes
the term of pectin in 1825 (Braconnot, 1825). Pectin is a polysaccharide,
natural substance that can be finding in all plant tissue. . Pectin exists in
different amounts in fruit cell walls; contain important nutritional and
technological characteristics (Knox 2002). In the cell walls, pectin act as one
of the primary agents binding the cellulose fibrils and may be linked
covalently to other polymers while intracellular pectins supply the channels
for movement of nutrients and water (Tamaki et al., 2008).

Pectin occurs generally in most of the plant tissues, the number of
sources that may be used for the commercial manufacture of pectin is
restrained. The numerous sources of pectin include citrus peels, sugar beets,
residues of mango, guava, coffee, dried apple pomace, sunflower heads, papaya,
and cocoa processing. Half of the commercial pectins nowadays used in the food
industry are extracted from citrus peels. (Kanse.N.G et al., 2017)

 Pectin is a polysaccharide,
long chains of a sugar derivative, galacturonic acid. It can be find in the
cell walls of plant tissues. Although pectin was found 127 years ago, the
actual structure and composition of pectin are still not fully understood. Because
of the ability of pectin can change during isolation from plants, storage, and
processing of plant material, the structure of pectin quite hard to identify.
(Novosel’skaya et al., 2000). Also some impurities which accompany the basic
components. Pectin that use in food is determined as a polymer containing at
least 65% galacturonic acid units. %). The acid groups may either be free,
combined as a methyl ester, or as sodium, potassium, calcium or ammonium salts,
and in certain pectins amide groups may also be detected. Pectin contains from
100 to about 1000 saccharide units in a chain-like configuration. (This tally
to average molecular weights from about 50 thousand to 150 thousand Daltons).


Citrus peel and apple pomace are the commercial and traditional
source of pectin and these are the waste material from another industry such as
apple pomace from a cider producer. Frequently Citrus peel has usually preferred
material for pectin production because it’s high pectin content and good color
characteristics. Lemon and lime peel commonly are the preferred sources of
citrus pectin while the peel need to be unlimed and it cannot be enzyme
treated. Lime treatment of the peel would hydrolyze all the pectin to pectic
acid and peel that has been treated with enzyme to ease the peel removal will
have the molecular weight of the pectin decreased. (Kanse.N.G et al., 2017)










5.4) Benefit
of Pectin


Utilization of pectin has been shown to lowered blood cholesterol
levels. In the large intestine and colon, microorganisms deteriorate pectin and
set free short-chain fatty acids that have positive effect on health.
(Tiwari.A.K et al., 2017)


The basic use of pectin is as a gelling agent, thickening agent and
stabilizer in the food. The understated application of pectin is give the
jelly-like consistency to jams or marmalades, which would contrarily be sweet
juices. For home using, pectin is an ingredient in gelling sugar (also
recognized as “jam sugar”) where it is diluted to the right concentration
with sugar and a bit of citric acid to adjust pH. In some countries, pectin is
also obtainable as a solution or an extract or as a blended powder, for
household jam making. (Sulieman.A.M.E et al., 2013)


Pectin is used largely in food industry as a gelling agent and it
is the key gelling agent in the process to make the jam which is still one of
the largest markets for pectin. Before this, Pectin sold as a liquid extract,
but now, it’s most frequently used as dried powder, which is manageable than a
liquid to keep  and handle. Pectin is a
commonly occurring biopolymer that is finding widening applications in the
pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry .Pectin also used in the food and
drink industry as a thickening agent, a gelling agent and a colloidal
stabilizer. (Kanse.N.G et al., 2017)








6.1) Materials:

In this study two types of orange
(abusamaka cultivar) and lemon (baladi cultivar) fruits (10 each ) that can buy
from Giant Nilai randomly, will transport to the Food biotechnology Laboratory
of the Department of Food Science and Technology, Islamic Science University Of
Malaysia in baskets pending extracting of pectin to be use for jam production.
Remove the foreign materials manually and wash fruits of both types clearly by
distilled water. The other materials that include: pumpkin fruits, sucrose,
clean potable water, acetone, ethanol, distilled water, commercial pectin,
pineapple flavor, citric, sodium benzoate and acetic acid (MSHA CO


6.2) Methods:


6.2.1 Extraction
of Pectin Total


Determine the pectin as g/100 g on fresh
weight basis sample. Peel orange and lemon and dry for four days and powder. Use
orange powder (500 g) and from lemon powder (500 g). Then add 5 liter of distilled
water and 50 ml HCL for each blend and then mix and left for 24 hours, then filter
in separation device. Add one liter of filtrate to 1 liter ethanol (95%), put the
mixture into centrifugation apparatus. Then left one hour and filter through
Buchner funnel. Add acidified ethanol to residues. Wash the filtrate with 250
ml acetone for drying and dry the filtrate at room temperature for 24 hours.
Ground the product into fine powder and sieve by 40 mesh sieve to separate
pectin from fiber. Then, collect the pectin powder, weight and pack in plastic
container pending jam production.



Processing of Jam

 Produce the jam according to the traditional
method using pumpkin as a raw material. The formula consists of pumpkin fruit
pulp (1 kg), sugar (1 kg) and pectin (8 g). Place the prepare fruit peels and
500 g sugar in a cooker and then mix well. Add the remaining sugar then cook the
mixture under continuous stirring for 1 2-15 minutes… When the total soluble
solids reach 60 Brix, add 8 grams of the extract pectin or commercial pectin.
Then cook the mixture until the total soluble solids reached 67 Brix. After
that, turn off the heat and cool the Jam to 87?, fill in sterilized dry jars, label and store for
about 2 weeks at room temperature 25?.

Physicochemical Analysis of Jam Product

 Analyze the jam produced either extracted
pectin from orange or lemon or commercial pectin samples by chemically and sensory
evaluation. The chemical methods included determination of the pH and the
contents of total soluble solids (TSS), moisture, ash and total carbohydrates
according to the AOAC methods. Estimate the reducing sugars contents according
to AOAC. Determine reducing sugar by dissolve 2 g of sample in 250 ml of
distilled water. Dilute 1 ml of solution with 100ml of distilled water in a
beaker. Pipetted 1 ml of the diluted solution into a test-tube and add 1 ml of 5%
phenol drop by drop. Allow the test-tube to stand for 10 min before the content
transfer into clean, grease-free cuvette and read with spectrophotometer at a
wavelength of 490 nm. Prepare a blank as above to set the equipment to
calibrate the equipment. 

Determine titratable acidity of the jam
samples using methods as described by Ruck. Transfer 25g of jam samples to 400 ml
beakers containing hot water, which was made up to the 200 ml mark, boil gently
for 15 min and filter through filter paper. Pipette 50 ml of the filtrates into
250 ml beakers; add 100 ml of water to each of them. Then titrate them with
sodium hydroxide to pH 8.1 using a pH meter. Calculate total acidity as follows: 


% Titratable
acidity =


Determine ascorbic acid by the 2, 6-dichlorophenol
indophenol titration procedure. Extract ascorbic acid using an acetic acid (70%)
and metaphosphoric acid (30%) solution. Transfer the extracts with distilled water
into a 50 ml volumetric flask and made up to the mark with more water and then,
filter rapidly. Run the filtrate from a burette into a test tube containing one
drop of dilute acetic acid and 1ml of the redo x dye, 2,6 dichlorophenol
indophenol solution. Note the volume of extract require to decolorize the dye.
Then, repeat the titration using standard ascorbic acid solution (1 mg pure
vitamin per 100 ml) in place of the jam and fruit extracts.


% ascorbic acid = 

W = volume of dye

Accomplish determination of potassium
(K), sodium (Na) and calcium (Ca) concentrations by means of flame photometer
(Model Corning, 400) according to the AOAC.


6.2.4 Sensory

jams products to sensory evaluation (Hedonic scale) using 10 trained panelists
to assess the texture, flavor, appearance and color. Carry out the tests in a
room free from disturbing noises, with uniform intensity levels of lightening.
Provide fresh air with water for rinsing. Use equally all those conditions for
all tests. Randomize the order of presentation of samples and give the samples codes
before test, then record and analyze the results.


Statistical Analysis

Analyze all scores of the sensory
evaluation by the analysis of variance (ANOVA), to determine whether there were
significant differences between means for each variable. Use Least significant
difference (LSD) test. 

Expected Result


            At the end of
experiment, the objective which is extract pectin from orange and lemon fruit
peels as well as the utilization of extracted pectin in the production of jam
is successfully achieved, and the null hypothesis is accepted.

            If there is a
possibility that the experiment failed, it might happen so because there is a
slight miscalculation at the methods section either there is a mistake when
conducting the experiment. The experiment will be conducted again if the
objective is not achievable, where some steps will be changed to suit the
experiment requirement. 















Gantt Chart







































































































































































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