ABSTRACT plague the sector. The present paper

ABSTRACT

 

“Education
is most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world’. Education is
the basic need of every society. Higher Education caters to the education in
colleges and universities. It has great importance in the development of a
country. However despite this impressive statistics there are still many
obstacles and hurdles that plague the sector. The present paper holds an
immediate importance of creating awareness of many issues and challenges
concerned with the higher education in India at national as well as at global
level. These include issues related with equity and quality, low gross
enrollment rate, unqualified and poor faculty, poor focus on research, outmoded
teaching methods, overcrowded classroom, inadequate infrastructure, ethnic
imbalances, inadequate financial support from government and society etc. The
study is also unique as it throws a gainful insight on the analyses the present
position of higher education system in India and the opportunities and
challenges faced by the higher education in India. The time has come to address
the proper procedure to deal with, only then we can transform our country from
a Developing Nation to a Developed Nation.

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I. INTRODUCTION

 

Education
is the basic need of every society. Higher education caters to the education in
colleges and universities. Earlier higher education used to be seen as a
luxury, which was available to few only, but now it is proved that it
contributes effectively in national, social and economic development. Basic
level education makes the person literate while higher education makes him
stand out and makes him realizes his true potential also give power to the
individuals to get better employment, higher salary, propensity to consume and
save.

 

Indian
higher education system is the third in size in the world coming after US and
CHINA. It hold the second largest place in terms of student enrollement.UGC is
the main governing body of higher education in India that enforces the
standards, advises the government and helps to coordinate between center and
states. Indian higher education system has expanded at a fast pace in many
aspects as its enrollment, teacher student ratio, institution capacity etc. The
growth of universities from 2000-01 to 2017-18 is almost more than four times
as in 2000-01 there were 256 universities in India and in 2017-18 at present
they are 893 in number. Total 47 central universities are there including 1
central Open University. 14 universities are exclusively for women, 4 in
Rajasthan, 2 in Tamil Nadu and 1 each in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Delhi, Haryana
Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttrakhand and west Bengal. According to the department
of higher education government of India, 33903 colleges including 1800
exclusive women’s colleges, functioning under these universities and
institutions in

 

India . Bangalore district tops in term of number of
colleges with 970 followed by Jaipur with 616 colleges. Apart from this higher
education there are several private institutions in India the offer various
number of professional course in India. The current emphasis in Indian higher
education has been mostly on science and technology. Distance learning and open
education are also an essential feature of Indian higher education system. At
all India level there are merely 64 female teacher per 100 male teachers.

II. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN
INDIA

 

In India
the institutional framework consist of Central universities, State
universities, deemed universities, institution of national importance, state
private universities. The list is updated by UGC as on JUNE 2017.

INSTITUTIONAL
FRAMEWORK

 

 

CENTRAL
UNIVERSITIES

 

 

47

 

 

STATE
UNIVERSITIES

 

282

 

 

 

DEEMED UNIVERSITIES

 

 

367

 

74

INSTITUTION OF

 

NATIONAL IMPORTANCE

 

 

 

 

123

 

 

STATE
PRIVATE

 

 

UNIVERSITIES

 

 

 

Total
number of universities as compares to last year according to data all India
survey report and department of higher education:-

 

 

2016

2017

 

 

 

Central universities

46

47

 

 

 

State universities

356

367

 

 

 

Deemed universities

118

123

 

 

 

Institution of
national

74

74

importance

 

 

 

 

 

State private
universities

253

282

 

 

 

 

III. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The present study throws a gainful insight on

?         To
analyze the present status and position of higher education system in India.

 

?         Issues
and challenges faced by higher education system in India.

 

Suggesting the measures to overcome issues and
challenges related to higher education in India.

 

 

IV. CHALLENGES AND ISSUES FACED BY HIGHER EDUCATION IN
INDIA

 

Ø       
LOW GROSS ENROLLMENT RATIO:- Higher
education enrollment is a leading indication of economic growth of any
country. India has very low GER as compared to other developing nations.

 

Currently India’s GER is 23.6% which is calculated for
18-23 years of age group. For male population 24.5% and for female
22.7%.governmaent of India has target to increase GER to 30% in 2020-21.

 

Ø       
Quota system:- debating quota system is
very controversial. But if we are being honest then I must tell quota is
not good for higher education. Talent and merit is more important than any
one’s identity.

 

Ø       
Huge demand and supply gap: – There is a
huge demand for getting admissions in some particulars institutes while
other colleges and universities lament about the vacant seats of the college.
There are

 

also some courses for which demand is in excess to the
available seats while there is excess capacity in others.

 

Ø       
Mushrooming of low quality institutes: – mushrooming
of low quality institute all over the country is not good for higher
education. These new colleges lack capacity and they are all about fleecing
money

 

from students and their parents. There is too much glamour
and less quality of education.

 

Ø       
Shortage and lack of qualified faculty: –
If we taken into account the ideal student and teacher ratio, and
compare it with India, we will find huge gap. There is clearly a lack of
educated educators. Their

 

knowledge is very insufficient. Even the teachers are not
having proper knowledge of their subjects.

 

Ø       
Less creative and innovative students: –
Students do not have any student-ship ethics, they just want marks in
the subject and they study only for grabbing jobs. There is no creativity in
students. Our top

 

class students are hard working but not innovative. They
are not capable enough to produce new technology.

 

Ø       
Access: – Access means availability of
suitable number of institutions across region to fulfill demand. Access
to higher education has remained poor despite the massive expansion of this sector
in the

 

country. Ensuring equitable access to the quality higher
education for students coming from poor families is a major challenge.

 

Ø       
Lack of flexibility: – lack of flexibility
to students in selection of the courses and subject of their choice is
also a big issue faced by Indian higher education system.

 

Ø       
Equity: – Equity is more a difficult
challenge than access to higher education. The disparity is found to be
due to the urban-rural divide, inequality in income distribution, gender and
religion.

 

Ø       
Imbalanced growth in higher education sector:
– Higher education sector suffers from imbalanced growth across the
country. The rural area, which represent about 68.84% of total population have
just

 

20% of the total professional colleges.

 

Ø       
Inadequate financial support: – One of the
key issues of higher education is a shortcoming of financial strength.
There is a serious problem of inadequate and diminishing financial support from

 

government
and society for higher education in India.

 

Ø       
No project based learning and Poor focus on
research:-just theory is not enough young graduates need to learn
vocational skills. And Research in higher education institutions is at its
lowest ebb.

 

India’s priorities for research and innovation should be
conditioned by our socio-economic realities.

 

According to Dr. S.C Vats, Chairman, Vivekananda Institute
of Professional studies, the

three action points for developing higher education in
India are:

1. The churning of researchers and doctoral research
candidates should be regulated.

2. The Vice Chancellors of universities should be provided
with enough flexibility to fix the

pay scale of these researches and scholars.

3. Fast track sanction of funds for research in newer
areas.

 

 

 

 

Ø       
Other challenges:-many more challenges
faced by higher education in India is related with poor infrastructure
of institutions, overcrowded classrooms ,traditional and outmoded method of
teaching,

 

political interferences etc.

 

 

V.  SUGGESTIONS TO MEET THE CHALLENGES

 

Ø   Provision of adequate trained and
qualified faculty: –
Student teacher ratio must be brought up to an ideal level and all
faculties must possess adequate qualifications and training before taking up

 

education.

 

Ø   Make the curriculum dynamic not
dogmatic: the
curriculum or the syllabus for students in our country in higher
education is outdated in most cases. It is stale, dogmatic and teachers’ things
that the

 

world has
moved on with. To infuse dynamism, you need the curriculum to be progressive in
nature.

 

Ø   Enable better funding for institutions: – Government must provide sufficient
autonomy and funding for all institutions.

 

Ø   Less political interference: – There should be lesser political
interference in university and colleges. It should be politics free.

 

Ø   Privatization of higher education: – Privatization of higher education
is very necessary in a vast country like India as government alone is
helpless. Adoption of PPP (public, private partnership) model

 

can be
possible solution of many problems faced by higher education in India.

Ø   Mobilize resources: – effective measures should be taken
to mobilize resources for higher education.

 

There is
also a need to relate the fee structure to the student’s capacity to pay for
the cost.

 

Ø   High-tech libraries:-universities colleges must have a
very good collection of books. A library must be online and conducive
for serious study.

 

Ø   Promote use of internet and
communication technology.

 

Ø   Government must ensure proper physical
access to rural sectors and emphasis on construction of higher education
institutions in closer proximity to villages.

 

Ø   Focus should on improving the
infrastructure of existing institutions.

 

Ø   There is need to focus on graduate
students by providing them such courses in which they can achieve excellence,
gain deeper knowledge of subject so that they will get jobs after recruitment
in the

 

companies
which would reduce unnecessary rush to the higher education.

 

 

VI. CONCLUSION

 

India is today one of the fastest
developing countries of the world with annual growth rate going above 9%. In
order to sustain that growth, there is need to talk about the problems of
higher education in India and highlight so that government can resolve them.
Now, the time has come to relook at the financial resources, access and equity,
quality standard, relevance properly to reach and achieve the future
requirements. We need higher educated people who are skilled and drive our
Indian economy forward. Only then we can transfer our country from a developing
nation to a developed nation.

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

1.      Higher education
in India: issues, concerns and challenges

 

2.      higher education
in India: major challenges

 

3.      all India survey
report 2016

 

4.     
www.indiaeducation.net

 

5.      Altbach, P.G
(2005a).higher education in India, the Hindu, April 12, 2005.

 

6.      Rao, V.K (2003).
Higher education. New Delhi, India: A.P.H. public corporation.

 

7.      Times higher
education 2009.

 

8.      Skilloutlook.com
top news.

 

9.      World
bank/UNESCO. (2000) higher education in developing countries.