Abstract – The world is going through a technological and
scientific revolution and the military organization are the primary drivers
behind the revolutionary changes in technology. The impact of the
computer-driven technological revolution on military capabilities and future
potential has certainly become clear over the past quarter of a century. This
paper showcases the study of some of the most recent technologies which are
being used by the military organization all over the world to empower
1. Introduction – The
growing challenge of security in World is one of the most concerns to all and
every effort must be employed to combat this challenge. Some of the pertinent questions
raised in the paper are, Can our Information Technology skills &
strategy guarantee security? Do the security agencies have proper Information
Technology Infrastructure in place for the purpose of information gathering, sharing
and dissemination? Do they have adequate surveillance equipment? Information
technology (IT) will play a critical role in strengthening The National
security against potential future attacks and threat. Specifically, IT will help enable the nation to identify potential threats, share
information more readily, provide mechanisms to protect the Nation, and develop
This working paper is
an attempt to respond to that demand. It aims to clarify some basic
understandings about autonomy: what it is, how it applies to weapon systems,
how it works, how it is created and what the key technological are available.
1.1 Weapons – As the concern of
security has become one of the most challenging tasks for the military. The use
of computer technology upon weapons has become one of the most important part
of military defense system. However, the technology which are applied on the
weapons are rapidly growing in order to make the most sophisticated and
powerful weapons that can reduce the drawbacks of existing weapons.
1.2 Types Of Weapons –
In the recent era of
technology, the weapons can be categorized in two categories that is partial autonomous
and fully autonomous weapons. In this review paper we will focus on the fully autonomous
weapons and the technologies which are applied on it.
diagram to show the categories of weapons
2.Autonomous Weapons –
In simple terms
‘autonomy’ can be defined as the ability of a machine to execute a task or multiple
tasks, without any human input, using interaction of computer programming with
the environment. An autonomous system is by extension, usually understood as a
system whether hardware or software that, once activated, can perform some
tasks or functions on its own.
However, autonomy is a
relative notion: within and across relevant disciplines, be it engineering,
robotics or computer science, experts have a different understanding of when a
system or a system’s function may or may not be deemed autonomous. As previously
identified by Scharre, these approaches can be sorted into three categories.
2.1 Categories of
Autonomy are as follows:-
1. The human-machine
A very common approach
for assessing autonomy relates to the extent to which humans are involved in
the execution of the task carried out by the machine. With this approach the
systems can be classified into three categories. Systems that require human
input at some stage of the task execution can be referred to as ‘semi-autonomous’
or ‘human in the loop’. Systems that can operate independently but are under
the oversight of a human who can intervene if something goes wrong (e.g.
malfunction or systems failure) are called ‘human-supervised autonomous’ or
‘human on the loop’. Machines that operate completely on their own and where
humans are not in a position to intervene are usually referred to as ‘fully
autonomous’ or ‘human out of the loop’. The concept of ‘sliding autonomy’ is
sometimes also employed to refer to systems that can go back and forth between
semi-autonomy and full autonomy, depending on the complexity of the mission,
external operating environments and, most importantly, legal and policy
2. The machine’s decision-making process
more technical approach to autonomy relates to the actual ability of a system
to exercise control over its own behavior (self-governance) and deal with
uncertainties in its operating environment.3 From this standpoint, systems are
often sorted into three major categories: automatic, automated and autonomous
systems. The label ‘automatic’ is usually reserved for systems that
mechanically respond to sensory input and step through predefined procedures,
and whose functioning cannot accommodate uncertainties in the operating
environment (e.g. robotic arms used in the manufacturing industry). Machines
that can cope with variations in their environment and exercise control over
their actions can either be described as automated or autonomous. What
distinguishes an automated system from an autonomous system is a contentious
issue. Some experts see the difference in terms of degree of self-governance,
and view autonomous systems merely as more complex and intelligent forms of
automated systems. Others see value in making a clear distinction between the
autonomy in weapon systems
Autonomy is a
characteristic that can be attached to a large variety of functions in weapon
systems. These may be sorted into five generic task areas: (a) mobility,
(b) health management, (c) interoperability, (d)
battlefield intelligence, and (e) use of force (see table 1).
3.1.Mobility includes various types
of functions that allow systems to govern and direct their own motion
within their operating environment. Key applications of autonomy for mobility
include navigation, take-off and landing, obstacle avoidance, and return to
base in case of loss of communication.
3.2.health management, regroups functions
that allow systems to manage their functioning or survival. One example is
power management: when a system detects that its power resources are low, it
can engage and manage the process of recharging or refuelling completely
independently. Other possible applications include autonomous fault detection
3.3.interoperability (focusing here on
machine autonomy) is concerned with the ability of a machine to execute a task
in collaboration with other machines or humans. Swarming is one notable example
of machine-to-machine collaboration consisting of making large numbers of
simple or low-cost physical robots execute a task in concert, which can be done
in a centralized or decentralized way.1 A number of experts foresee that
developments in swarming will have a fundamental impact on future warfare, as
it would enable the application of force with greater coordination,
intelligence, mass and speed.2 In terms of human-machine collaboration, one key
con-crete application of autonomy is to enable the use of natural language
(either speech or gesture) for command and control. Voice command and control
is already in use in some weapon platforms, but so far it is limited to the
execution of non-critical tasks.
intelligence, refers to on-board functions that allow weapon systems to find
and analyze data of tactical or strategic relevance on the battlefield. The
data may then serve to guide decision making by either the operators or
3.5. use of force- refers specifically
to functions that enable weapon systems to search for, detect, identify, track
or prioritize and attack enemy targets on the battlefield.
4. Working Of Autonomy
– Autonomy is about transferring
data from environment and making it useful for the completion of certain task or
multiple task. The autonomy can be applied into the defense system by using
technology driven techniques. There are a lots of algorithms are available in
the world of technology which are being use by the military to empower or to
make the weapons more sophisticated and more intelligent.
4.1. Anatomy Of
A) Sensor – Sensors are the
digital device that is being used to sense the outer environment and the data
collected by the sensor is being received by the processors.
B) Processor – A suite of computer
hardware and software that allows the system to interpret data from the sensor
and transform it into plans and actions. The three most important technologies
in this regard are computer chips, sensing software and control soft-ware that
together form the ‘brain’ of the system
C) Network – It is used to create
the communication between all the elements of anatomy.
D) Actuators and
Effectors – It allows the system to execute in its operating environment.
components form the underlying architecture of autonomy. The actual
characteristics of these underlying technologies will be different depending on
the nature of the task and the operating environment. It should also be noted
that technologies may be integrated within a single machine—which could be
described as ‘self-contained autonomy’—or distributed across a network of
machines—which could be described as ‘distributed autonomy’
5. Example through
Algorithm ORCA (Optimal Reciprocal Collision Avoidance)
avoidance is a fundamental problem in aviation and naval field. The problem can
generally be defined in the context of an autonomous mobile robot navigating in
an environment with obstacles and/or other moving entities, where the aircraft
or ships employs a continuous cycle of sensing and acting. In each cycle, an
action for the machine must be computed based on local observations of the
environment, such that the robot stays free of collisions with the obstacles
and the other moving entities, while making progress towards a goal, thus to
avoid these kind of problem ORCA algoritham came into existence. Optimal reciprocal
collision avoidance is an algorithm which is used in aviation and naval war
ship. This algorithm is used to detect the path.
5.1 Steps of Algorithm
are as follows
A) Details of aircraft or
ship is entered such as length, height, weight, max and min speed etc.
B) the sensory optical device mounted into the aircraft
or naval ship sense the environmental pressure such as the air, water pressure
or the climatic condition.
C) the sensory optical device detect the path and
makes the mark on the path routing chart.
D) If the sensory optical
device detects any trouble the flag makes the counter at1 or else 0.
E) Same steps will run in
loop until the goal achieved.
The main drawback of
ORCA algorithm is it is very sensitive. It totally depend on the sensory
optical device if unfortunately the sensory device doesn’t able to collect the
data the whole algorithm may crash and can give the foul result, that can be
harmful on the practical ground for the aviation controllers. Making
self-driving vehicles capable of operating in highly diverse human environments,
such as in a war zone is much more challenging because it is difficult— if not
impossible—for a programmer to develop a model that will capture all possible
combinations of events.
A conclusion that can
be drawn from this brief review is the importance of perception. It is the lack
of perceptual intelligence that is impeding the advance of autonomy in some of
the most critical applications areas of autonomy in weapon systems, namely
mobility, interoperability, use of force and battlefield intelligence. For a
number of experts, the solution to designing machines capable of advanced
situational under-standing lies in the current progress of machine learning.