: A: Starting with memory, it is amazing

: Specify 4 different domains within psychology that you
find interesting.

 

A:         There are
various domains within psychology that I find interesting. The ones that really
intrigue me are Memory, Social Psychology, Psychodynamic Psychology (Freud) and
Learning.

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Q: For each of the 4 domains, provide a thorough explanation
of why you find that area of psychology interesting.

 

A:         Starting with memory, it is amazing how
our brain stores certain memories that we can recall for years without
forgetting. Also how different life experiences could fit into short-term
memory or long-term memory. I also remember learning Miller’s law that our
human brain capacity can only hold 7 numbers plus or minus 2 in our working
memory. I wonder how these psychologists can determine these ideas about memory
and how our brain works.

            Social
psychology has always been a subject that I enjoyed learning about. I actually
just previously took a course about social psychology and learned a vast
amount. I learned a lot about how we interact with others, couple interactions,
social cues and much more. In todays world, there is so much different
behaviors, thoughts etc. Social psychology will allow us to study more about
these interactions and learn more.

            Sigmund
Freud’s psychodynamic theory, was a theory I always found interesting because
it attempts to explore your unconscious thoughts and emotions. This could mean
your dreams and how that could explain your behavior and drives. He believed
there was three things that make up ur personality; id, ego and super-ego. I
love to learn about the factors that drive behaviors and how childhood
experiences can alter emotions etc.

            The first
thing that comes to my mind when I think of the domain of learning within
psychology is Albert Bandura social learning theory. Just having my baby
cousins over I watch this theory come into fruition. Whatever movements I make,
my baby cousins observe what I’m doing and love to imitate me. The Bobo Doll
was a great experiment that proved this social learning theory and helps us
explain behavior of people till this day.

 

Q:       Describe the study and what it
investigated. Be sure to provide more details than what is already stated in
the manual

 

A:         The study I
chose was the Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment. This experiment took place
in 1971, where psychologist Philip Zimbardo was interested in finding out if
the brutality among guards in American prisons were due to situational variables
or dispositional. So what Phillip did is he put out a local newspaper ad
calling for volunteers and was offering them $15/for participating in the study.

More than 70 applicants applied, however some were eliminated due to failing
the diagnostic interviews and personality tests. So what they did is they set
up a mock prison in the basement of Stanford University. They had a “coin” flip
to decide which participants would be a guard or a prisoner. So the prisoners
had to remain in the mock prison 24-hours a day for the duration of the study.

Guards were allowed to go home after their 8-hour shift. The interactions
between the guards and prisoners were aggressive and dehumanizing. The
prisoners had a lot of anxiety and experienced very bad depression as time went
on. The study was supposed to last two weeks but with how things were going it
was cut short to just five days.

 

Q: Use the
information about the APA Code of Conduct presented on Pages 5 – 7 to explain
how the experiment went against ethical codes.

 

A:         To have
Ethical research the study requires the following things; Informed consent,
Freedom to withdraw, Protection from harm, Debriefing, and Confidentiality.

Starting off with Informed consent there actually was in the Stanford
Experiment. Phillip told them what the experiment is before it took place. He
told them he was studying the psychological effects were of becoming a prisoner
or prison guard. As for freedom to withdraw, even the researchers themselves
were beginning to lose sight of the situation. Phillip was taking in the role
of prison warden, where he overlooked the guard’s abusive behavior. I would say
there was no freedom to withdraw because everyone was taking in their roles and
not recognizing the harm its causing. There was no protection of harm because
the guards were assaulting the prisoners constantly. They would scream at them
and really broke the prisoners down, physically or emotionally. There was no
official “debriefing” of the students both prisoners and guards after the
study. It appeared that the prisoners were happy it was finally over with and
the guards were actually upset about it. There was confidentiality because all
the participants were known by a number instead of their actual name. So
confidentiality was maintained throughout the whole study.

 

Q: Discuss what
could have been done differently to research the topic ethically

 

A: I think there are many things that could have been done
differently. Firstly, I think they needed an outside psychologist watching over
the experiment and being able to recognize that things are getting worse.

Zimbardo was so involved that he couldn’t make decisions anymore when things
were getting out of hand. There was no protection from harm whatsoever. I think
they needed a proper experiment that was predictable so that the volunteers
were not assaulted. When it came to informed consent, Zimbardo didn’t really
explain the possible dangers of the experiment to the participants.