7. with standard deviation of 7.91years. This implies

7. Type
and Sources of Data

This study is mainly on secondary data. The data have been
collected from the different sources, such as statistical bulletins of the
Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), website database of the Central Bureau
Intelligence Ministry of Health and Family welfare India and World Development
Indicators (WDI) this is annual data of development indicators collected by the
World Bank’s and other relevant publications. All the statistical data are
based on internationally standardized data, collected and processes by these organizations,
whether collecting data from national sources or through their own surveys,
harmonized definitions and collection methods to make the data internationally
comparable, and the countries unbiased “sampling units.”

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12. Major Findings of the Study

This study was set out to investigate the impact of public health
expenditure on Health outcomes in Nigeria and India. Specifically, the study
investigated the relationship between government health expenditure and health
outcomes, the trend of government health expenditure and health outcomes. In
the light of the analysis and discussion of the data made in this study, the
major findings were made and presented below.


First we conducted the descriptive analysis. It was found that the mean value of Government
health expenditure as a percentage of GDP in Nigeria and India over period 1990
to 2016 was 1.0 per cent, demonstrating the poor health expenditure of the
countries. It was also found that, the mean value of physician’s population
(DCTR) per 1,000 of the population was 0.47 per cent and maximum value is 0.70
per cent. The study further found that primary school enrollment (EDU) has the
mean value of 98.12 per cent over period under study. India recorded the
highest school enrolment of 97 per cent and Nigeria was recorded 78 per cent.
In respect the life expectancy at birth it was discovered that life expectancy
at birth in Nigeria and India mean value is 55.9 with standard deviation of
7.91years. This implies that a child born in Nigeria and India is expected to
live for an average of 56 years compared to the work average of 71 years.
Similarly, the study found that percentage of under-five mortality rate over
the period stood at 114 per cent children. The maximum and minimum values stood
at 212.5 per cent and 46.50 per cent respectively.


Ø The findings
from the first objectives shows that government health expenditure impacted
positively on immunization by 0.763 per cent and Physicians population by 0.001
per cent, and negatively impacted on life expectancy at birth by -0.040 per
cent, under-five mortality rate by -1.834 per cent, education -0.716 per cent and
to GDP per capita was -64.056 per cent. Though government health expenditure as
a percentage of GDP in Nigeria and India it appears to be very low during the
period of study, even with some increase in some years one can see clearly such
spending is not directed much to the priority areas, such as health care
services for children and provision of medical facilities.



Ø With respect
to the second objective it was found that there is no long run causality
between government health expenditure and life expectancy at birth, under-five
mortality, and physician’s population as it has coefficient of -1.074, -4.165
and -2.055 but such relationship was found in the case of education with
coefficient of 1.724, GDP per capita with -7.285, and immunization with 2.838. The
absence of long run causality between life expectancy, government health
expenditure and physicians (DCTR) suggests that for government to improve life
expectancy at birth (LEB) it is necessary, but not a sufficient strategy, to
only direct expenditure towards provision of good and affordable health care
service but conscious effort is also needed in providing well train and
qualified medical personnel.


Ø The analysis
with respect to the study’s third objective found that the trend of life
expectancy at birth (LEB), GDP per capita (GDPPC), and immunization (IMU) were
averagely on the increase. LEB was 58 years to 68 years, GDPPC was $1,958 to
$6,658 billion and IMU was 70 per cent to 87 per cent in Nigeria and India over
the study period whereas the, trend of under-five mortality (U5MR) was found to
be declined from 122.2 per cent to 197 per cent in the period. Similarly, the
variable of government health expenditure (GHE) was 1.1 per cent to 1 per cent;
by and large the trend of GHE was found to be consistently fluctuating and decreasing
trend during the period of the study for both countries.   EDU
was 86.3 per cent to 109.6 per cent and DCTR shows to be fluctuating ups and
down with 0.4 per cent to 0.3 per cent respectively.


8. Limitations of the study

Expenditure on health can either
be in the form of capital or recurrent expenditure and there is number of
various health outcomes indicators and health services indicators. However, due
to the unavailability of data the study will not consider the impact of the
type of expenditure on health outcomes. Capital expenditure is that part of
expenditure in acquiring capital goods, like hospital equipment and training of
hospital staff, which are long- term investments, recurrent expenditure on the
other hand, refers to expenditure on day-to-day running of health system. The
study is also unable to include some important factors that determine better
health such as individual’s behavior on nutrition, age, and other determinants
due to the unavailability of these data in terms of time series/cross