5.1 hospitalization. The situational transition is related to

5.1 Types and patterns of transition

There are four types of transitions, which are developmental
transition, health and illness transition, situational transition and organizational
transition. Developmental transition is mentioned about the development process
occurred in human being including birth, adolescence, menopause as well as
aging. Next, health and illness transition which explained regarding the
recovery process and hospitalization. The situational transition is related to
the additional or subtraction of the surround people, for instance loss of
family member due to dealth. Meanwhile, the nurse shortage can fall under
organizational transition as it is involved in changing working environment. Besides
that, the pattern of the transition is different from every individual. Some
people will experience single transition and some will have multiple

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5.2 Properties of transition experiences

There are five properties in transition experience based on Meleis.
It is included awareness, engagement, change and difference, time span, and
critical points and events. Awareness is the perception or knowledge of the
person related to the transition experience. The level of awareness can be
explained as the degree of knowledge of the individual pertaining to the
process, responses and perceptions in undergoing the transitions. If the person
experience lack of awareness regarding the changes, it explains that the person
has not initiate the transition experience (Meleis, 2010, Alligood & Tomey,
2010; cited from Smith, 2012). For example, the awareness of the nursing students to have
transition from student life into registered nurse in the working environment.
They usually will experience the feeling of excited, happy, relieved, delighted
and proud. However, these initial feelings will then replace to nervousness and
vulnerable as they realized the transition of responsibility and accountability
related to the new role, which as a registered nurse (Kumaran & Carney, 2014).

engagement is the phase which the person portrays the involvement in the
process of transition. For new enrollment registered nurses, they usually have
engagement with the experienced nurses. Smith (2012) stated in her study that this is the critical stage which can
determine the decision of the new nurses whether to stay or leave the
institution. In the engagement process, they will face many events and
experiences related to the working environment, senior staffs as well as
patients. The property of change and difference in the Transition Theory is related
to the movement or direction that can affect the satisfaction and expectation (Saleh Al Omar and Lubna Abushaikha,
2017). If
the nurses are decided to turnover, they will experience the differences. If
they change to the other place or having migration, they will find differences
in food, social pattern and others. They need to understand the impact of the

            The time span is
the moving over time. The transition that happened takes time to make the
individual adapt to the transition process. And the last property is critical
points and events. According to Saleh Al Omar & Lubna Abushaikha
usually transitions have critical points and events. However, some events might
not be the evident for some transitions.


5.3 Transition condition

            The transition
conditions influence the way of the individual moves through transition
(Alligood & Tomey, 2010; cited from Smith, 2012). The transition may happen smoothly or there is personal factor or
social factor that involve in inhibit the transition process.

5.4 Patterns of responses

            A healthy
transition can be evaluated by the healthy responses. The positive outcomes
defined the healthy transition (Al-Omar & Abushaikha, 2017). It is explained that every people may conducted transition,
however a positive outcome is the main objective that most people wanted to


5.5 Nursing therapeutic

            For nursing
therapeutic, there are three measures need to be applied. The measures are
assessment of readiness, preparation for transition and role supplementation. These
measures help in generating the best condition of readiness, provide clear
information and support for the transition (Al-Omar & Abushaikha, 2017).



            The global nurse
shortage is one of the examples of organizational transition. It happened when
the nurses are turnover from one hospital toward a better opportunity and
working environment in another hospital. The awareness of the nurses regarding
the new working place will portray their preparation, which includes physical
and mental, before entering the new place. The preparations are crucial to ensure
they are survived. However, if the nurses show lack of awareness regarding the
transition, they have the high possibility to have burn out and reduce the job
satisfaction. Smith (2012) reviewed a research conducted by Mills and Mullins (2008) which
mentioned one-third of the employees leaves within the first six months of
employment and approximately 50% leave within a year.