2. salmon are major consumers of fish

2. Use of marine resources: In their native environment, salmon consume a diet of small fish and other marineanimals. When salmon farming began, to ensure proper nutrition, diets were composed largely of fish meal and fishoil. As the industry grew, the use of fish meal and fish oil in salmon feeds led to a criticism that salmon farming wasputting added pressure on the sustainability of forage fish biomass. Salmon feed is a major consumer of fish mealand fish oil, accounting for 17 percent of global fish meal usage and 55 percent of global fish oil production.13 Inboth cases there is no evidence that the industry is contributing to greater fish meal or fish oil production. In fact,while fish meal use has shifted from use in poultry and swine production, global fish meal production from wholefish has declined and an increasing share of fish meal production has come from fish processing residues.While aquaculture and salmon are major consumers of fish meal and fish oil, the growing industry is and will besustainable and will not negatively impact marine resources, because: a) the rise of salmon farming and aquacultureresulted in no net increase in fish meal and fish oil production, but rather, a redistribution of usage from otheranimal agriculture sectors, and b) inclusion rates continue to decline and fish meal and fish oil usage has been flatas the industry has grown.With a 1.2 to 1 feed conversion ratio (feed in to fish growth), one of the lowest of any farmed fish and nearly twiceas efficient as chicken, salmon represents the highest and best use of scarce resources. In rough terms, humans useone-third of our calories to stand up, one-third to keep warm, and another third to power our brains and moveabout—clearly fish have a fin up on us. Also, with fish, the majority of its meat is edible. For Atlantic salmon, 68percent of the fish is edible, compared to about 20 percent and 12 percent for chicken and pork, respectively.Furthermore, farmed fish use very little fresh water in the production cycle. Farmed Atlantic salmon require only1,500 liters per kg of fresh water in production whereas producing 1 kg beef requires 14,000 liters of fresh waterconsumption.3. Risk to wild fish: Salmon are raised in saltwater net pens. Environmental organizations suggest that this kindfarming represents three major risks to wild salmon stocks: a) escaped salmon can breed with native, wild stocks,displacing wild mating and producing offspring that are less fit, b) escaped salmon could establish invasive breedingpopulations in areas where they are not native and displace local, native wild salmon stocks, and c) saltwater netpen rearing operations are a potential reservoir for disease or parasites which could be passed to wild salmon orother wild fish.The risk of escapes cannot be eliminated in net pen farming operations, but as the industry has grown andequipment has become more advanced, escapes have declined significantly. Whereas early net pens containedonly 5,000 fish, a single pen can now hold up to 200,000 fish, worth over $2 million. As the scale has increased,farmers have also made increasing investments in equipment to ensure this asset is safe. Industry-wide, escape