2. President Trump’s foreign policy is identified as “America First.” Using examples from his stated policy principles, explain which perspective currently dominates U.S. foreign policy. Describe some of the critiques other perspective might have of “America First.” As mentioned in this quote from official website for the White House that, “President Donald J. Trump has fulfilled his promise to put America First by prioritizing the defense of America’s borders at home and its interests abroad”(“President Donald J. Trump’s First Year of Foreign Policy Accomplishments”), it shows that the main goal of current U.S. foreign policy, “America First” is the defense of American border, and then, its relations with other states. Realist perspective could be said to be currently dominating U.S. foreign policy. According to some Realist perspective critiques, “along with the assumption that the political state is the most powerful actor, realists in turn also give little weight is given to non-state actors. They view individuals and non-government organizations as lacking the military power needed to compete with states in the international system” (“Realism in International Relations.”). From the quote above, it can be said that in realist perspective, the state is prioritized and any other states, or non-state organizations are not given much importance while making a sanction or policy. Same attitude is displayed by U.S. foreign policies. Also, as seen in santions made by President Trump such as being quoted here, “(President Trump)requested and received an additional $21 billion in Department of Defense funding to address urgent readiness shortfalls” (“President Donald J. Trump’s First Year of Foreign Policy Accomplishments”), as well as, “Ordered $367 million in missile defense investments for fiscal year 2017 and $4 billion for 2018 to defend against the threat of North Korean missiles”(“President Donald J. Trump’s First Year of Foreign Policy Accomplishments”), President trump’s main focus was on making U.S. military stronger, which is one of the main points in Realist perspective. Liberal perspective theorists might argue that the current U.S. foreign policy does not benefit other countries as much as it does to U.S. In “America First”, the wellbeing of United States citizens and the rules and regulations that benefit U.S. are given the greatest importance, which is against the main idea of Liberal perspective, that all states should be given equal importance while making any foreign policies. Furthermore, in “America First”, non-state actors such as NGOs, and UN and the United States are neither interdependent, nor are given much importance.Now, in identity perspective, the main idea is to use the power that a state has acquired. In “America First”, while diplomatic powers were used to discuss foreign policies, no military power has still been used. Lastly, while critical theory emphasis on changing society as a whole, Trump’s foreign policy “America First” focuses only on American society. 3. Define globalization and provide examples of how we see the present-day impact of globalization from the four perspectives. Globalization is the interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different states, an action driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This development has effects on a country’s culture, environment, on political system, economy or on human life. Also, this increased interaction amongst different nations have increased the flow of ideas and technology around the world. Firstly, according to Liberal perspective, globalization have increased the influence of non-state organizations in world politics. The following quote, “It must also be said that the roles of non-state units such as Greenpeace, Multinational corporations (MNCs), and the roles of actors like the World Bank all become more influential in world politics”(TheGWPost.), further emphasizes on the increase in importance of non-state organizations in world politics. These non-state organizations helps to check on the power of states, thus, maintaining the balance of power. Also, globalization has brought different cultures and technology from one country or region to other countries or regions, making it possible for new ideas to develop and spread around the world. While some Liberal perspective theorists view the positive effects of globalization, some emphasis on the negative impacts of globalization. Some negative impacts of globalization according to Liberal perspective includes- climate change, cross-border terrorist activities, and depletion of natural resources. According to these liberal theorists, globalization mostly benefits Multinational corporations, or MNCs, and these MNCs exploits non renewable and limited in amount resources such as oil and coal merely for their profit. Also, these non-renewable resources when burned produces greenhouse gases which traps heat, making temperature of the Earth hotter, and thus changing climate of the Earth. Therefore, Liberal perspective theorists consider globalization as doing more harm to the world than making it better. Secondly, according to Realist perspective theorists, hegemony is important for globalization or international relations to stay stable. National security has become the number one priority for the nations. This concern can be seen in recent sanctions made by President Trump to strengthen U.S. military and security, by providing more funding to military and deploying more U.S. soldiers to fight terrorism. Military is given most importance, and other concerns such as environmental, or trade, are not given much priority(“Globalization, Realism and Liberalism Essay”). This disinterest in environmental concerns can be seen in President Trump’s decision made earlier in 2017, to withdraw from Paris Agreement, and to open more coal mines, which a nonrenewable resource and one the biggest producer of greenhouse gases. Now, according to Identity perspective, globalization is difficult in developing countries, but due to trading, countries such as China or India are becoming globalized at a faster rate than countries in Latin America (Nau). Mostly resources such as coal and minerals are exported from these developing countries to the point where it is exploited. Burning of these resources which are already in limited amount produces greenhouse gases, and other pollutants, that pollutes air and water on Earth, thus spoiling Earth’s environment (Nau). And atlast, globalization has also increased migration, due to which diseases such as Swine flu, Zika, or Ebola are spreading to places other than its origin state. Finally, Critical theory states that globalization is not a result of Western ideology or institutions, but rather is the output of years of colonization and military imperialism. Explo4. Explain the concept of “buck passing.” Do we see evidence of buck passing in world powers’ response to Russia’s increasing aggression in the Middle East and Eastern Europe or the ongoing North Korea? If so, use two examples to demonstrate the concept of buck passing in the present. If they do not demonstrate buck passing, explain why that is not the case. Buck Passing refers to transferring responsibility or blame of someone to another person. In politics, buck passing is referred to as a strategy used by a state to try to get another state or organization to fight a threatening state, or blame another state for their actions. In international relations buck passing usually involves a state refusing to fight a threatening state so that another state will take responsibility. An example of buck passing is, when Chen Jining, former Minister of Environmental Protection of China said that, “the heavy pollution affecting Beijing was a global problem” (“Donald Trump and the new culture of blame passing.”). Jining’s statement above shows his intention to shift the blame on him for not regulating China’s atmosphere to other states.The evidence of buck passing in world powers’ response to Russia’s increasing aggression have not been seen yet. All world powers that have been involved in this situation have contributed to solving the problem, instead of just one state contributing. For instance, Russian annexation of Crimea in march 2017. This invasion was conducted by Russia for intention of either gaining back this former territory of Soviet Union, or due to NATO’s expansion along Russia’s border (Treisman). In a response to this attack, U.S. sends troops to Poland, and 2,800 tanks and other military equipment are being sent with the troops from Germany(Batchelor). Other than U.S. troops, NATO have sent approximately 4,000 troops to Poland, Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia, and another 800 battalion have been sent by Britain to Estonia (Batchelor). In the example provided above it can be seen that no one country was held responsible to solve this problem, instead many world powers opposing Russia’s annexation came together and sent military aid. This example goes against the concept of buck passing, therefore it can be concluded that, there is no evidence of buck passing seen in world powers’ response to Russia’s increasing aggression.