1. Not off of their skin color or

Look over the Code of Hammurabi’s 282 specific codes/laws (weblink labeled
“Code of Hammurabi” Based on chapter reading and the Code of Hammurabi text,
what are the striking characteristics of these laws?  How does the
Code of Hammurabi reflect the social stratification of Sumerian society?  (Use
specific codes to support your points…but make sure to note the number of the


The Code of Hammurabi’s is defined as a proclamation in the
language of the land issued by the Babylonian king Hammurabi “to establish laws
and justice; it inflicted harsh punishments, but it was pervaded by a sense of responsibility
to the people.” Even though his code brought upon harsh penalties, justice was
always going to be given fairly regardless. Hammurabi felt that it was up to
him to govern the
Mesopotamia citizens to the best of his ability. The code had two very
distinguished characteristics. First, the law differed according to the social
status of the individual as well as the gender. A nobleman wasn’t punished as
harshly as a common person just as a common person wasn’t punished as harshly
as a slave was. Certain crimes that were crimes for women were not for men.

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Secondly, the code demanded that the punishment properly fit the crime. I think
this is very important and should have been a higher standard. People should
have been punished solely based off their crime. Not off of their skin color or
class rank. This characteristic called for “an eye for an eye, and a tooth for
a tooth”. For example, “a noble who destroyed the eye of a common person could
pay a fine instead of losing his eye as well.” So as long as the criminal and
the victim were in the same social class, the victim could demand the exact
thing to occur to the criminal.



The code tells us that life for the
Sumerians was not equal. An example of this would be “Code 117: If anyone fail
to meet a claim for debt, and sell himself, his wife, his son, and daughter for
money or give them away to forced labor: they shall work for three years in the
house of the man who bought them, or the proprietor, and in the fourth year
they shall be set free.”  I think this
rule if very unfair. The wife and children should not have to work to pay the
debt on something they did not purchase. The man should be the one having to do
the work for another family to pay off his debt. On a more personal level Code 128
states that “If a man takes a woman to wife, but have no intercourse with her,
this woman is no wife to him.” I believe this rule is being a little harsh. Sex
is a thing that is supposed to occur between man and wife but for some women
they need time before doing something so intimate. It is not fair for them to
not be considered “his wife” if she doesn’t have sex with him on their first
day. I believe the Code of Hammuabi is fair and unjust. Many of them are fair
but some are not.






Review over pp.38-42 etc., What are the similarities and
differences between the Hebrew God (Yahweh) and the other surrounding
polytheistic religious beliefs?  How were these Hebrews/Jews treated
under the Assyrians (what happened to Israel)?  The Neo-Babylonians?


The Covenant is defined as a formal agreement between Yahweh and
the Hebrew people that if the Hebrews worshipped Yahweh as their only God, he
would consider them his chosen people and protect them from his enemies. The
Hebrews had believed that Yahweh had led them out of bondage from Egypt and
helped them to conquer Israel. There is no doubt that Hebrew and Pagan have
several similarities but they also have their differences. They too have a priest,
temples, and a covenant. Many would say that Israel would borrow ideas from its
competitors and claim it as their own. Yet the bible tells us that every time
Israel did this, it led them far away from Yahweh. For the differences, let’s
start with saying that every other nation at the time was polytheistic, while
Israel was uniquely monotheistic. Pagans used worship to trigger angry and
selfish Gods, while the Hebrews worshipped with gratitude and grace. The
Pagans, immoral acts such as murder was an act of worship. This was definitely
not the case for the Hebrews. Yahweh initiates the Hebrew worship.



The Jewish did very well in Babylon.Many of the Hebrews became
very wealthy after their time of farming and being able to earn some money. The
Jews and the Neo-Babylonians were treated well and fairly. They were given
opportunity which in this era I believe everyone wanted. Everyone wanted a
chance to better themselves, their families and to be successful.



(Cyrus the Great p.50) What were the keys to Cyrus’s
success as a ruler?  How did Cyrus’s rule compare to that of the
Assyrians?  How did Cyrus/the Persians treat the Jews?

Cyrus the Great had an authentic leadership and that is what
brought him so much success. Without a doubt, his morals and strong leadership
skills gave him the respect that people had
for him and his people under him. Cyrus had a great sense of humor and was a
very practical man. He founded the Persian Empire based on moral principles. When
it came to the enemy Cyrus always showed a great amount of respect for them. He
enjoyed consulting with other leaders from other cultures. Cyrus believed in
the freedoms of religion, job, and place of residency. He believed if an
individual wanted to reside in any place then they should be able to do so. In
the Bible (e.g., Ezra 1:1-4), Cyrus is known for freeing the Jewish captives in
Babylonia and allowing them to return to their homeland. His name occurs twenty-two
times in the Bible. Cyrus the Great had a major influence on many famous people
such as Aristotle and Alexander the Great, and the Roman Empire government. He
told other governors to treat their citizens as if they were their own
children, and that no one would be executed for a crime on their first offense.

This is a main fact that I feel led to his success. He believed in his people
and he believed in second chances. He knew, that even himself were not perfect
yet deserved to try again. People respected his fairness yet strictness when it
was needed. He ran a tight ship and it let to mounds of success.


the Great was building an empire that was based upon the Persian rule of faith,
unlike the Assyrians. Persia held a powerful position that they couldn’t afford
to be tampered with. The Assyrians had a method based on fear and terror. This
is why they were not as successful as the Persian’s. I believe we can all
honestly say that being positive and expecting the best outcome will definitely
take us farther than living in fear. Cyrus allowed the Jews to return their
homeland, Judea. Many believe the reason he did this was to give a barrier
between his people and the Egyptians. If this was true then maybe the Jews didn’t
realize that they were being used. With that being speculation, we do know that
Cyrus did treat the Jews very well. By allowing them to return to their
homeland he established a good standing with them.


Explain in your own
words the difference between a primary source and a secondary source AND explain
what the value of using each in research is AND then
Demonstrate your understanding by answering the following: Which of the
following (from your textbook) is a primary source and which
is a secondary source?


primary source is the unchanged materials of historical research that includes
documents or artifacts that are relevant to the topic being discussed. A
Secondary source typically goes into more depth about the topic being discussed
and often reinstates the details of that topic. The value of each of these
sources plays a huge part in research. A primary source allows us to have what
I like to call the unfiltered version. It allows us to have the accurate description
of what happened. As a researcher that is a huge benefit to me. It is straight
to the point which is often what we need. A secondary source on the other hand
can be so beneficial when we are needing so much detail and analysis. It is a
vital part in being able to fully understand why an event took place in time. I
have a great appreciation for both sources as they are vital to researchers. It
is important to be able to get something “point blank” on why something occurred
but also being able to get the full picture.  An example of a primary source from our
textbook would be found on pg. 24, which is a painted casket that depicts the pharaoh
as the defender of the kingdom repulsing its invaders. An example of a
secondary source would be found on pg. 50 which is a short article about Cyrus
the great.


is an example of a primary source.

is an example of a secondary source.