• some of the ethical considerations involved in

• What is evidence-based criminology? How does the meaning of the word evidence in evidence-based criminology differ from the evidence found at a crime scene or used in criminal trials? Evidence based criminology is a  form of contemporary criminology that uses rigorous social scientific techniques, especially randomized, controlled experiments and the systematic review of research results and because evidence refers to scientific findings. Pg.29• What is a theory?  What purposes do theories serve?  What role do research and experimentation play in theory building in criminology? Theory is serious of interrelated propositions attempting to describe, explain, predict, and ultimately control some class of events. The purposes that theories serve is Provide patterns for interpreting data, link studies together, Supply frameworks within, which concepts and variables have special significance that allow us to interpret the larger meaning of findings. Pg.32• What is the role of criminological research in theory building?  What is internal validity?  External validity?  How can threats to internal and external validity be addressed?The role of criminological research in theory building is Determinations of program effectiveness are made through research. Internal validity threats – issues within the experiment that will cause unwanted bias and external validity is the ability to generalize research findings to other settings.Pg.30-35• What are the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods in the social sciences?  What are the advantages and disadvantages of each method? Qualitative method varies sing unstructured or semi- structured techniques, common methods include focus groups, individual interviews and participation/observation. Quantitative data collection methods are much more structured than qualitative methods includes various forms of surveys Pg.43-44• What are some of the ethical considerations involved in conducting criminological research?When performing criminological research, the researcher must be cognizant of the ethical questions that may arise from their experimental methods. Among these considerations are the needs to protect participants’ privacy and to not cause any harm. Data confidentiality must be thoroughly exercised to protect the individual research participants while preserving justified research access to needed information. Researchers need to utilize informed consent which is a strategy used to overcome many of the ethical issues inherent in criminological research, meaning the subjects are informed as the nature of the research Pg.45• How do criminological research and experimental criminology impact social policy?Criminological researchers hope to influence social policy on the basis of their structural evidence. Experiments such as the three strike law had become popular amongst Legislature near the end of the 20 the century. The three strike law requires that felons receive lengthy prison sentences following their third felony conviction. This law was built on the notion that putting repeat offenders in prison for long periods of time should reduce the crime rate and the possibility of that offender returning to prison. A wider-based study, dubbed “the most comprehensive study ever of crime prevention, “found that “much of the research on prisons was inadequate or flawed, making it impossible to measure how much crime was actually prevented or deterred by locking up more criminals. Pg.47• What sections might a typical research report contain?A typical research report might contain a title page, acknowledgement, table of contents, preface, abstract, and introduction sections to begin the report. Following that, there will typically be a section that lists any existing research that was used, and possibly a description of the existing situation if it was not covered earlier. A statement of hypothesis is also used, a description of the research plan, as well as any disclaimers. Then finally, the findings, analysis, conclusions, a footnotes section, Appendixes’, and a list of references would follow.Pg.49