· of co2 in the formation and improved

The 2017 IEA’s World Energy Outlook(weo) predicts
energy needs expand by 30% from 2017 to 2040.

Oil demand will keep on rising because of momentum from other sectors and
reach 105 mb/d by 2040. Use of Natural gas rises by 45% to 2040 and accounts
for a quarter of global energy demand, becoming the second largest fuel in
global mix after oil. (https://www.iea.org/weo2017/#section-2)

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storage of Co2 together with improved oil recovery by Co2-enriched water

Sohrabi?, Nor Idah Kechut, Masoud Riazi,
Mahmoud Jamiolahmady,

Ireland, Graeme Robertson

of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh, UK


to DoE (U.S Department of Energy), 86% of world primary energy use is supplied
by fossil fuels. (Energy Bulletin,2009).—->{Adam
Grubb, Energy Bulletin, 2009.



With the
increase in global energy demand, various strategies are considered which make
energy greener by reducing co2 emission. One of the strategies is capturing co2
and its injection in oil reservoirs. This can lead to storage of co2 in the
formation and improved oil recovery. The technology is referred to as CCUS. 1


The DoE
predicts that in 2030, fossil fuels will account for same share of world’s energy
and will continue to dominate through 21st century.


by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) indicate that
significant reductions from current CO2 emission levels will be required by
2050 if we are to stabilise atmospheric concentrations of CO2. (IPCC Fourth Assessment
Report, 2007). ——>IPCC Fourth Assessment Report,
2007. Working Group III Report –Climate Change 2007: mitigation of climate


This means
that, we will need to increase the global supply of energy by reducing
greenhouse gas emissions. Out of various options which have been explored,
storage of captured co2 in geologic formation is one of the major mitigation
strategies, as it can store large volumes of co2 over long periods of time. Types
of geologic formations for CCS include unmineable coal beds, deep saline aquifers
(those containing non-potable water) and mature or abandoned oil and gas
fields. 1

            Oil and gas reservoirs
make a fitting choice out of all options because: –

a)       Geology
is well known for significantly reducing uncertainties associated with co2
migration and long-term storage.

b)      Co2
injection can improve oil recovery and lead to increase in revenue, which can
help offset part of cost associated with CCS.


fired power plants and other large point sources of co2 are good candidates for
capturing co2. Capturing co2 from these sources is very expensive. In addition
to that very low pressure of flue gas (1 atm) and its low co2 content (10-15%) makes
it more expensive to capture co2 and compress it for use. High costs associated
with large volumes of co2 make conventional co2 flooding uneconomical in many
oil reservoirs around the world which would have been good candidates for co2
injection. 1