characteristics including locus of control and social interaction anxiety is
selected to investigate the influence of these on compulsive smartphone usage
and technostress. Therefore, it is conceivable that high social interaction
anxiety and external locus of control can serve as new predictors of compulsive
smartphone usage and technostress.
Individuals with an
external locus of control believe that events are not within their control but
in the hands of some external force. Therefore, we expect that individuals with
an external locus of control are more likely to experience compulsive usage of
smartphones and technostress than their counterparts with an internal locus of
control. Meanwhile, those factors could agree with the study by (Lee et al.
2014) in the research stated that because of their passive tendencies and
reduced powers of self-control, individuals with an external locus of control
are more likely to use their smartphones compulsively.
Because social anxiety is
lower when interacting online than when interacting in real life, interacting
online rather than face-to-face has proven to be a useful alternative,
ful?lling the need to interact in a less direct way. Therefore, it is plausible
that people with high social interaction anxiety are more disposed to depend on
their smartphones and experience compulsive usage of smartphones and
technostress than those with low social interaction anxiety.
So, the people with an
external locus of control and a higher level of social interaction anxiety are
prone to use smartphone more frequently when feeling depressed, which might
bring about technostress and compulsive use of smartphone.
Based on the
research background, this study addresses the following research questions:
characteristics influence compulsive smartphone usage and technostress?
Do external locus of
control (LOC) affect the compulsive smartphone usage and technostress?
Does a higher level social interaction
anxiety (SIA) affect the compulsive smartphone usage and technostress?
following, hypotheses regarding in?uences of each psychological characteristic are
Smartphone users with an external locus of control demonstrate more compulsive smartphone usage and technostress.
Smartphone users with a higher
level of social interaction anxiety demonstrate
more compulsive behavior and technostress.
Method and Design:
Since this study
is positivist, as it holds a deterministic philosophy in which causes determine
effects or outcomes. It is a quantitative research; so deductive approach has
been selected for this research. The respondents consist of students of Institute
of Administrative Sciences, Lahore. In this research, survey method will be
used as it provides quantitative and numeric description of trends, attitudes
or opinion of a population by studying a sample of that population.
Collection and Analysis:
The survey will
be applied as a data collection strategy and questionnaire is developed as an
instrument for conducting the survey. This research specifically targets the
users of smartphone. A total of 150 questionnaires will be distributed to both
males and females. Data analysis will be done through quantitative methods,
which this study will analyze the data collected using the system of
Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) and then examine the
relationship of the variable tested to confirm or reject the hypothesis. From
the results of data analysis and interpretation, deductions will finally made.
of the study:
This study is of
great importance as it draws attention to technostress, provides a general view
of compulsive behavior and places emphasis on psychological characteristics.
The outcome of this paper will provide information which beneficial to the
related researchers and practitioners. Besides, the study will also help the
students to get better understanding regarding smartphone usage and
technostress. It will also contribute in terms of allowing us to understand the
effects of psychological characteristics towards compulsive smartphone and
This study is subject
to certain limitations. First, this research framework integrated two
psychological characteristics to investigate compulsive use and technostress.
Other psychological traits or variables, such as materialism, need for touch, technology
self-efficacy, still need to be investigated. Second, users’ psychological
characteristics are not easy to be retrieved. Finally, the subjects are students
of Institute of Administrative Sciences, Lahore. A sample taken from universities
and cities with a different culture and lifestyle might show different results.
In each of the
stage taken in this study, ethical issues will remain the main consideration,
especially with the access to information as well as during the data collection
and finding analysis. To ensure the survey being conducted is ethical, the
participant must accept consent forms. A consent form is the first page
participants will see when accessing the link to the survey. To be able to
access the survey they must read the consent form. By accepting the consent
forms, the participants acknowledge:
The objective of this
What their answers to the
survey will be used for.
That they can withdraw from
the study completely and their answers will not be used.
Names will not
be asked for in the survey to keep participants anonymous. Privacy will be maintained
by keeping the results confidential and using the data collected only for this